REPLY1  150 WORDS CITATION AND REFERENCES

Pneumonia is a respiratory infection. This infection causes inflammation of the alveoli which can result in the air sacs filling with pus or fluid. Pneumonia can be fatal to individuals older than 65 years and children and infants. Pneumonia has the potential to adversely affect an individual’s life, and, therefore, prevention against the disease is the best protection. Some forms of pneumonia can result from influenza. Flu vaccines are one step that can be taken to prevent infection. Pletz et al. (2016) state that there are vaccines for some forms of pneumonia as well. An individual can use a variety of health promotion techniques to prevent pneumonia. For instance, handwashing is a critical step in preventing the spread of community-acquired pneumonia. Pathogens are removed from hands and this helps keep the individual and community safe.

Ceasing smoking habits is a key health promotion tool. Smokers are highly susceptible to pneumonia infection, according to Baskaran et al. (2019). Weakened lung function as a result of smoking is worsened when an infected with pneumonia. Therefore, when a smoker stops the habit, he or she lowers the risk of getting infected. Establishing good health habits in one’s life can play a significant role in keeping pneumonia at bay. For instance, a healthy diet boosts an individual’s immunity, and, therefore, improves his or her chances of fighting off the infection with the help of prescribed medication. Other habits such as rest and adequate physical activity enable an individual to maintain optimum respiratory health. Regular check-ups with a physician are also a good way of finding out if an individual’s current health situation leaves him or her susceptible to getting an infection.

References 

Baskaran, V., Murray, R. L., Hunter, A., Lim, W. S., & McKeever, T. M. (2019). Effect of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing community-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 14(7), e0220204.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220204

Pletz, M. W., Rohde, G. G., Welte, T., Kolditz, M., & Ott, S. (2016). Advances in the prevention, management, and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. F1000Research, 5.doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7657.1

REPLY 2  150 WORDS CITATION REFERENCE

When the flow of blood to the heart is blocked, it leads to a heart problem like a heart attack. A gradual build-up of fatty streaks (plaque) form in the coronary arteries, which often leads to heart blockage, form a plaque in the arteries that feed the oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. The build-up of fatty streaks makes the coronary arteries narrow and stiffen over time (Heart Foundation NZ. 2020). As the coronary arteries narrow, it becomes more difficult for oxygenated blood to reach the heart muscle. If treatment is not initiated, then a heart attack occurs. The plaque breaks away and forms a clot that interrupts blood flow, which supplies blood to the heart.

A heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction, can be fatal, but with treatment, exercise, and fat-free food can reduce the effect and improve dramatically over the year. The patient is encouraged to follow these steps necessary for health prevention and promotion of heart attack (Heart Disease Prevention | MedlinePlus, 2019)

  • High blood pressure (BP) is a significant risk factor for heart disease. Few steps to control blood pressure are monitoring BP daily, including lifestyle changes, preventing or controlling high blood pressure.
  • Keeping cholesterol and triglyceride levels under control by eating less fat, exercising and taking any prescribed medication to reduce the level
  • Have enough sleep. Not getting enough sleep will raise the risk of high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes. Those three things are a significant risk for heart disease. Most adults need 7 to 9 hours of sleep per nigh. Extreme stress causes heart attack and not coping with stress leads to heart disease.
  • Avoid or quit smoking. Cigarette smoking can raise blood pressure and a higher risk for stroke and heart attack.
  • Regular exercise. Exercise has many benefits, including strengthening the heart and improving circulation. It can also help maintain a healthy weight, lower cholesterol, and blood pressure. All of these can lower the risk of heart disease.
  • Limit alcohol. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which may cause weight gain. Both are risk of heart disease

References

Heart Disease Prevention | MedlinePlus. (2019). Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/howtopreventheartdisease.html

Heart Foundation NZ. 2020. What Happens To Your Heart During A Heart Attack?. [online] Available at: <https://www.heartfoundation.org.nz/your-heart/post-heart-attack/about-heart-attacks> [Accessed 13 July 2020].

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