50 Questions Multiple Choice Due Oct/13

Biol 100 Fall 2017 Gray

Name_____________________________________________ Hour _________

1. The regulation of which of the following is NOT part of maintaining homeostasis?

A. blood-glucose levels
B. salt concentration of body fluids
C. blood pressure
D. body temperature
E. body weight

2. Put the following into the correct order from least complex to most complex: organ systems, tissues, organs, cells.

A. cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
B. organs, cells, organ systems, tissues.
C. tissues, organs, cells, organ systems.
D. cells, tissues, organ systems, organs.
E. organ systems, organs, cells, tissues.

3. Please pick the most correct answer. _____ is the maintenance of a relatively stable internal body temperature.

A. Physiology
B. Homeoregulation
C. Thermoregulation
D. Metabolism
E. Homeostasis

4. Which of the following is an example of an ectotherm?

A. whale
B. gecko
C. kangaroo mouse
D. fruit bat
E. artic fox

5. An increased concentration of red blood cells in the blood in response to high altitude is an example of

A. metastasis
B. acclimatization.
C. thermoregulation.
D. osmoregulation.
E. vasodilation.

6. When blood sugar rises after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin. This causes cells to take up excess glucose. When blood sugar falls, glucagon is released from the pancreas. This causes cells to break down glycogen into glucose, which is then released into the blood. Which of the following aspects of this system best explains why it is an example of homeostasis?

A. The release of insulin causes blood sugar levels to fall.
B. The release of glucagon causes blood sugar levels to rise.
C. The pancreas and liver work together as an organ system.
D. The system works to keep blood sugar levels within a narrow range.
E. Insulin and glucagon are enzymes that only work within a narrow range of temperatures.

7. Because of ________, hands, feet, and noses get cold before the rest of the body does.

A. vasoconcentration
B. vasoconstriction
C. vasodilation
D. pH regulation
E. insulin

8. When the body is overheated,

A. blood vessels near the skin surface will dilate.
B. lymph nodes will shrink.
C. the body will produce more blood to cool itself.
D. the heart will pause every few beats to reduce blood flow.
E. the body will begin to shiver.

9. What functions as the body’s “thermostat?”

A. The endocrine system.
B. the hypothalamus.
C. the nephron
D. Bowman’s capsule
E. pressure sensors in valves.

10. At the State Fair, you have a snow cone, some cotton candy, an elephant ear, part of a hotdog, and some deep-fried Oreos. This series of dietary choices involves more sugar than your cells are going to be able to use, at least immediately. The remainder will be stored in muscle tissue and your liver as

A. protein
B. glycogen
C. amino acids
D. glucagon
E. bile

11. Which of the following is NOT part of the digestive system?

A. stomach
B. liver
C. pancreas
D. kidneys
E. All of the above are part of the digestive system.

12. Most nutrient absorption occurs in the __________.

A. esophagus
B. kidneys
C. stomach
D. small intestine
E. large intestine

13. The pulpy, partly digested ball of food in your stomach is chyme, which normally includes all of the macromolecules. Once chyme leaves the stomach, bile salts _____, and pancreatic juice _______.

A. denature proteins; neutralizes acid chyme
B. emulsify fats; neutralizes acid chyme
C. neutralize acid chyme; breaks down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
D. emulsify fats; denatures proteins
E. break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats; emulsifies fats

14. The organ labeled “9” in the picture above is the __________.

A. esophagus
B. liver
C. pancreas
D. small intestine
E. large intestine

15. Salivary amylase digests __________.

A. proteins
B. polypeptides
C. carbohydrates
D. vitamins
E. lipids

16. Pepsin (which is a protease) digests __________.

A. proteins
B. polypeptides
C. carbohydrates
D. vitamins
E. lipids

17. Lipase digests __________.

A. proteins
B. polypeptides
C. carbohydrates
D. vitamins
E. lipids

18. Which organ makes bile salts, which also help break down fat?

A. pancreas
B. liver
C. spleen
D. gallbladder
E. mouth

19. The villi improve absorption by _________ and are found on the __________.

A. increasing surface area; lining of the small intestine
B. secreting lubricating mucus; muscular wall of the colon
C. releasing bile salts; cells of the liver
D. producing lipase; epithelial cells of the duodenum
E. allowing peristalsis; inner lining of the esophagus

20. Where do nutrients absorbed through the small intestine go next?

A. into the bloodstream
B. into the urinary bladder
C. into the brain
D. into the large intestine
E. into the ureters

21. What relationship allows for some vitamin production and absorption in the large intestine?

A. a basic pH
B. pepsin production
C. microbial gut fauna
D. elimination
E. the neck bone’s connected to the… shoulder bone….

22. Iron-deficiency anemia is a condition in which insufficient iron in the diet leads to low levels of hemoglobin. One symptom of anemia is fatigue, a lack of energy or feeling of weakness.
Why might anemia cause fatigue?

A. Those suffering from anemia are almost always underweight. They are not eating enough.
B. dehydration can lead to fatigue, and low hemoglobin is associated with dehydration.
C. low iron is causes white blood cell malfunction.
D. Low hemoglobin means compromised oxygen-carrying capacity, which slows cellular respiration.
E. A and B

23. Which of the following will trigger an increase in ADH released by the hypothalamus?

A. high blood pressure
B. high blood solute concentration
C. liver disease
D. pancreatic disease
E. infection

24. Blood contains cells in a protein-laden liquid known as what?

A. water
B. lymph
C. leukocyte
D. plasma
E. erythrocytosis

25. Where is CO2 produced in the body? Please choose the most correct answer.

A. in the lungs
B. in the heart
C. in the mesoderm
D. in the large intestine
E. in every cell doing respiration

26. A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to your lower organs is
A. a vein.
B. an artery.
C. an atrium.
D. a capillary.
E. a ventricle.

27. The transition between arteries and veins occurs within tiny blood vessels called

A. transition vessels.
B. transition arteries.
C. capillaries.
D. alveoli.
E. neurons

28. Which cells lack mitochondria when they are mature?

A. liver cells
B. epithelial cells
C. muscle cells
D. red blood cells
E. fat cells

29. Capillaries allow for diffusion of oxygen into cells because

A. blood flow is slowed.
B. of the lower concentration of oxygen in the blood.
C. of thin capillary walls.
D. A and C
E. the capillaries are under high pressure.

30. The tiny air sacs that act as the primary site of gas exchange are termed _____.

A. pharynx
B. lungs
C trachea
D. alveoli
E. vocal chords

31. Which muscle(s) is/are primarily responsible for the ventilation of our lungs?

A. rib cage muscles
B. diaphragm
C. lung muscles
D. bronchial muscles
E. cavitation muscle

32. Carbon dioxide is primarily carried from the tissue to the lungs by which blood component?

A. plasma
B. red blood cells
C. white blood cells
D. It forms air bubbles and moves through the cardiovascular system.
E. Carbon dioxide does not move into blood directly

33. Low partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere (as you might experience while climbing Mount Everest) has what effect on the oxygen diffusion into the blood from alveoli?

A. The diffusion rate of oxygen into the blood is always constant and does not change due to a change in the number of available oxygen molecules in the alveolar air.
B. The diffusion rate is increased because there are more oxygen molecules available in the alveolar air.
C. The diffusion rate is decreased because there are more oxygen molecules available in the alveolar air.
D. The diffusion rate is increased because there are fewer oxygen molecules available in the alveolar air.
E. The diffusion rate is decreased because there are fewer oxygen molecules available in the alveolar air.

34. The type of training regimen that uses altering exposure to different partial pressures of oxygen in order to increase oxygen delivery to the tissue is called ___________.

A. train high, live low
B. hypoxic conditions
C. partial pressure training
D. altitude training
E. live high, train low

35. Given what you’ve learned in class and in lab, you might reasonably conclude that the number of kidneys possessed by your average mammal is:

A. one
B. two
C. it varies, depending upon the mammal.
D. between one and four.
E. mammals do not have kidneys.

36. Which of the following is NOT true of vampire bats:

A. they have to be able to produce very dilute (watery) urine
B. they have to be able to produce very concentrated urine
C. they have to be able to rid their bodies of a lot of urea
D. their ADH levels go up during the night while they are feeding
E. their ADH levels go up during the day while they are sleeping

37. As you recall, the kidneys have a number of important jobs. Which of the following are the kidneys not in charge of?

A. regulating osmolality
B. regulating pH
C. regulating blood pressure
D. regulating food toxins
E. regulating urea

38. The kidneys ALSO produce erythropoietin, or EPO. EPO…

A. regulates water content in the blood
B. promotes red blood cell production in the bone marrow
C. detoxifies the blood
D. creates dilute urine
E. promotes the creation of super-concentrated urine

39. Which of the following is NOT an important role of white blood cells:

A. ingesting and destroying pathogens
B. transporting oxygen to the cells
C. destroying infected cells in the body
D. releasing antibodies that bind to specific pathogens
E. persisting in body to fight future infections

40. Which of the following is not/are not part of the innate immune system?

A. Respiratory cilia
B. skin
C. antibodies
D. histamines
E. natural killer cells

41. Vaccines contain:

A. antibodies
B. antigens
C. phagocytes
D. lymphocytes
E. memory cells

42. Which of the following can help a dishonest athlete enhance his or her performance?

A. synthetic renin
B. synthetic amylase
C. synthetic insulin
D. synthetic erythropoietin
E. synthetic bile salts

43. Many pathogens that have troubled humankind have been reduced or wiped out through the use of vaccines.
Which of the following pathogens would you be at the highest risk of exposure to here in the United States?

A. polio
B. smallpox
C. bubonic plague
D. chronic shortness
E. diabetes

44. If you have a vaccine for a viral or bacterial pathogen, do you need to be exposed to that pathogen again to have a rapid immune response?

A. Yes. After a second exposure, your system will be ready for battle if a third occurs.
B. No. The point of vaccines is that you’re protected against the pathogen without having to go through a damaging (or possibly fatal) exposure to a live pathogen.
C. Vaccines cause autism.
D. Trick question: there are no vaccines for viral pathogens
E. Trick question: there are no vaccines for bacterial pathogens

45. What is a natural killer cell?

A. any pathogen
B. a bacterial pathogen
C. the H1N1 virus
D. a modified red blood cell
E. a white blood cell that kills virally infected cells and tumor cells

46. You’ve been scratched by a kitten (though it didn’t draw blood), and now you’ve got a raised, red, sort of itchy line on your arm. It’s hotter than the rest of your skin when you poke at it. You are experiencing

A. collateral damage
B. a bacterial infection
C. an inflammatory response
D. platelet-mediated clotting
E. the first step in the transition to a zombie

47. It is difficult to develop a universal flu vaccine because _________.

A. of antigenic shift
B. it is difficult to produce noninfectious flu viruses to provide the antigen
C. of the innate immune response
D. of inflammation.
E. of antigenic drift

48. What organ is in charge of safely packaging ammonia produced through protein breakdown?

A. large intestine
B. kidneys
C. liver
D. pancreas
E. small intestine

49. For those lacking a gall bladder, which of the below should be consumed in careful moderation?

A. sweet foods
B. salty foods
C. bitter foods
D. fatty foods
E. protein-rich foods

50. What sort of disease is multiple sclerosis?

A. a bacterial infection
B. a viral disease
C. an eating disorder
D. an auto-immune disorder
E. a parasitic disease

Congratulations! You have finished Exam II. Please make sure you have 50 selections marked on your Scantron sheet, and that your name and hour is also marked on that sheet.