Introduction Between 1993 and 1995, M. E. T. T. S. inferiortook a weigh of the libertys coercion transforming the Bataan Nuclear Might Unpremeditatedice to fossil fuel (coal or cosmical fog) vital-principle. Undivided aim of the weigh was to ascertain another communicate coercion Philippine and Australian coal or cosmical fog (LNG). The superfluous scrutiny regarding the Bataan Reactor is: how to conciliate a financial grant-back from a very excellent-priced might unpremeditatedice that * has never performed electricity; * is exacting the Philippinec State a sizeconducive iteme in concern; and * has environmental, escort and gregarious concerns aggravate its portraiture as a nuclear might unpremeditatedice.
The retroequitconducive of the turbine generator with a fossil fuel vital-principled fume promotion classification was suggested as a wealths of utilising distribute of the set, and conciliateing some grant-back coercion gone-by and advenient quenchedgoings. The reverberation/proposal weighd some libertys coercion fossil fuel firing, and compared those libertys with nuclear action. Background The Bataan Nuclear Might Set was completed in 1984, whilst edifice begind in 1976. It is a Westinghoportraiture gentle insinuate reactor, that portraitures pressurised insinuate as it intensity change medium between the reactor and the fume generators.
Its proposal ardent space is 1876MW(t), whilst its rated might quenchedput is 621MW(e)1. The technology that is solderd into the set is superfluously advenient seventies, except has been mitigated to solder past upstart-fangled escort devices, such as those recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, behind evaluation of the Three Mile Island pellucid. The set, which was in the rule of commissioning at the duration of the EDSA alteration, has referconducive been vital-principled, although nuclear fuel was delivered to it storage facilities.
Maintenance has continued, with the parity of the set and ancillaries substance fixd. Conclusion of Weigh The Philippine Government has coercionegoingly orderly that the Philippines achieve bear nuclear might, except that might achieve conclude from upstart set and referconducive the Bataan reactor. President Ramos announced on the 8th October 1994 that the Reactor would be transformed to a 1000MW completely cycle fog set. (Although an assertion coercion a favoring transmutation proposal has been made, it is stagnant considered that there is duration coercion other libertys to be considered. )
We rest that transmutation is technically practicable, except economically impolitic. Upstart and loving coal or cosmical fog vital-principled might sets would grant greatly rectify efficiencies, and thus would grant the Philippines greatly rectify esteem per peso departed on fuel consumed. The M. E. T. T. S. ‘s weigh concluded that the singly habit of conciliateing a reasonconducive grant-back from the Bataan ‘machine’ is to portraiture it as a nuclear might set. Our reverberation favoringally came to the cethhereafter conclusions: * That the portraiture of the exhibit ‘nuclear’ turbine/generator in a fossil vital-principled classification would be very-much monstrous of principle (fuel), A upstart pulverised coal might unpremeditatedice and/or completely cycle cosmical fog might unpremeditatedices at other place(s), would be a rectify bombardment in stipulations of fuel gainingness and levellised might exacts, * The Bataan place is irrelevant coercion coal vital-principled set, ascribconducive to environmental constraints and representatives (coal and ash) handling problems, * Past assessconducive places could be rest coercion completely cycle cosmical fog vital-principled sets abquenched Romanceila Bay, and Batangas, * The Bataan reactor has been maintained in a amiconducive predicament gundivided mothballing, and The reactor is of basically investigate proposal and edifice, and could with civil quenchedgoings beconclude undivided of the most later and safest gentle insinuate reactors in East Asia. To vital-principle the set as a nuclear quickness, the deep insinuate intakes to the condensers would deficiency to be cleaned (with some equipment substance replaced), some of the reactor monitoring classifications would deficiency to be exalt upgraded, whilst the assist might transmission classification would deficiency to be reconstructed. Staff would deficiency to be retrained and re-licenced.
A style of the weigh is exhibited in the resolute condition by Clarke, Ebeling and Cordero. The condition was presenred at The First Philippine International Conference on Principle Gainingness and Call-ce Side Treatment, Romanceila, January 1995. Libertys coercion the Transmutation of the Bataan Nuclear Might Set to Fossil Fuel Firing Dr. Michael C. Clarke, Director, M. E. T. T. S. Pty. Ltd. , Sydney, Australia Mr. Douglas R. Ebeling, Associate, M. E. T. T. S. Pty. Ltd. , Sydney, Australia Eng. Donato L. Cordero, Engineering Romanceager, Bataan Nuclear Might Set The cethhereafter Executive Itememary of a main reverberation coercionmed the premise of a tractate exhibited at the 1st Philippine Conference on Principle Gainingness and Call-for-side Treatment, Romanceila, January 1995. ) Excellent exacts and might race exacts are itememarised in Consultation 1, coercion undivided coal transmutation liberty, and the transmutation of the set to cosmical fog vital-principled, completely cycle action. Coercion contemptibleity purposes figures are to-boot exhibited coercion the refurbishment, commissioning and general the set as a nuclear might unpremeditatedice. Electricity exacts from nuclear action are considerably cheaper than coercion ither the two transmutation libertys. If might exacts was the singly criteria coercion permitted the set then nuclear firing would cladvenient gain. Twain coal and cosmical fog transmutations achieve bear environmental consequences coercion the portion. By the installation of best suited technology and the contact of best suited action, the impression achieve be minimised. The exact of technology and action nevertheless achieve extension the exact of electricity performed by the set. Consultation 1. SUMMARY TABLE, FOSSIL FUEL CONVERSION OPTIONS, BNPP – Revision, March 1995 CONVERSION TO COALCONVERSION TO N.
GASNUCLEAR COMPARISON POWER OUTPUT MW(e)8001700 620 ENERGY OUTPUT GWH5,600 (With FGD – 5400)12,2004,613 CAPITAL COST $USm750 (With FGD – 1070)1385380 (UPGRADE) Electricity Exact ? US/kWH4. 82 (With FGD – 5. 94) 5. 24, 4. 34 (FP $230/170)3. 50 Electricity Exact P/kWH1. 21 (With FGD – 1. 49)1. 31, 1. 09 (FP $230/170)0. 88 CAP. COST/POWER OUT0. 94 (With FGD – 1. 34)0. 810. 61 CONSTRUCTION TIME42 MONTHS4218. 24 FGD Flue Fog Desulphurisation (+ Selective Catalytic Decrease) FP Fuel Appraisement, Cosmical Fog ($US230 /tonne coercion LNG, $US170 /tonne piped fog) – (Coal $US 55 / tonne) Referablees on Consultation 1
Coercion contemptibleity purposes, the two fossil fuel transmutation libertys and the nuclear contemptibleity bear each had the electricity exact installed on a restore era of twenty years. In each predicament (coercion the consultation) it has been exertionive that the bountiful excellent exact has been ascititious. When financing directs are substance considered, irrelative restore eras are mitigated to be portraitured. The eras are mitigated to extension with increasing obligation. With the cosmical fog transmutation liberty, an equity subsidy would probably be comprised, gundivided a BOT financing proposal may be portraitured, that ties fog coercionmation, reticulation and portraiture into undivided marketconducive direct.
The electricity exacts coercion coal and cosmical fog transmutation are installed on a reasonably optimistic scenarios, where no exorbitant assistant excellent exertions are pregnant across the set. If environmental or other constituents exact such exertions, then extension in the electricity exact would befall. It is exalt considered that the set exactd coercion transmutation would be sourced from deep exact countries; China, India, Australia, the Philippines romanceageeseeing, as distant as practicable. The exactings coercion transmutation are exalt premised on the portraiture of the place undiminishedocated coercion edifice of PNPP 2, in that it is replete at no exact, and is geologically steadfast.
If the duration exactd coercion the edifice and commissioning is probing, then the upgrading of the set as a nuclear unpremeditatedice is cladvenient the preferred excellent. Exalt, the financial analyses declare that the nuclear firing of the set unpremeditateders the cheapest electricity. Grantn that the nuclear fuel appraisement is mitigated to halt sconsultation aggravate the coercioneseeconducive advenient (as across mitigated rises coercion coal and cosmical fog), the nuclear upgrading# and action unpremeditateders important financial positiveness to investors. # M. E. T. T. S. ‘s consider coercion upgrading the nuclear set to 1997/8 standards is $US380m.
It is backed by exalt visible toll, and comprises upstart escort features. $US300m is the exact of a basic upgrading installed on calculations carried quenched by the National Might Corporation. SUMMARY – COAL FIRING The transmutation of the PNPP I set to coal firing has some advantages. Coal technology is polite-mannered-mannered proven, and singly a inexpressive change in the consistent portraiture of that technology is exactd to transform the set. The might unpremeditatedice achieve bear a space contemptible to the proposal space coercion the nuclear set, and achieve referconducive be the enlightenedst set in the upstart echelon of Luzon’s might facilities.
The set of 800 MW(e) space achieve be proportionately inhigh-priced at a excellent exact of $US505m – withquenched Flue Fog Desulphurisation, Selective Catalytic Decrease, or exorbitant quenchedgoings on coal or ash handling and ignoring the coercionegoing quenchedgoings on the nuclear classification. A edifice and commissioning era of 42 months is envisaged. The coal liberty nevertheless unpremeditateders matchless co-economic opportunities. The ash desolate exertion would be estimconducive if portraitured in assistant activity. By using the Lahar performed by the Pinatubo exumation as an collection, with the ash, muscular oxide and perpetuate, estimconducive fabrication representatives could be performed.
The hindrances comprise proposaling and equitconducive an environmentally accepconsultation coal vital-principled might unpremeditatedice into the Bataan portion. The representatives handling alundivided achieve educe divers environmental, treatment and actional difficulties. The infrastructure exactments coercion representatives handling achieve to-boot educate engineering and environmental scrutinys that achieve deficiency to be solved precedently edifice begins. Other environmental scrutinys regarding speech decrease and romanceage must to-boot be answered precedently exertion can begin.
Another main hindrance is the exactment coercion bounty fuel, that is excellent-priced in 1994, and in undiminished appearance achieve beconclude proportionately past excellent-priced as the call-ce coercion ‘clean’ coal extensions in the advenient. SUMMARY – NATURAL GAS FIRING (COMBINED CYCLE, GAS TURBINE) Cosmical fog procures the cleanest liberty coercion the transmutation of the Bataan might unpremeditatedice to fossil fuel firing. It exalt unpremeditateders the most pliant might quenchedput to the grid. Libertys hlong-standing coercion general a distribute (or integral) of the set as a separate cycle peak direct procurer, or general the integral set as a disesteemed direct quickness.
The environmental peril that would be educed by such a set is deep compared to coal. Ardent defilement to the deep would be important than the nuclear liberty, in that if a 1700MW(e) set was built with 46% gainingness, the desolate intensity would be 2000MW(t). This intensity would be distributeially unyielding into the latitude (250MW) as across to the deep (1750MW). The joined intensity execute to the deep would be abquenched 500MW(t). NOx speechs can be successfully romanceageled by later technology.
Fume or insinuate insertion, ammonia enumeration or innovative vital-principle proposals achieve whole accepconsultation (except referconducive cipher) NOx speechs. At 1700MW(e), the might unpremeditatedice would be the enlightenedst in the Philippines, and would positively exact a retrospect of the Luzon principle artifice. The combine expenditure of cosmical fog aggravate a twenty five year era would be 2. 5 TCF; aggravate half the undiminished Philippine contemplated wealth from Palawan. Aggravate a billion dollars in excellent would be deficiencyed to establish the set, plus an joined true iteme to afford the fuel; either as LNG or pipeline fog.
The escort of a enlightened fog trade area would deficiency to be addressed. Such a trade area and might unpremeditatedice would effect a proportionately referable-difficult target when compared to a coal vital-principled set with coal yards or nuclear facilities. The installation of the fog turbines could be achieved in eighteen months, except the edifice of the fume generators and carrying quenched speciess to the trade set would grasp a exalt twenty filthy months. From the precursive financial dissection, the edifice of a upstart completely cycle might unpremeditatedice effects rectify financial wisdom. A NUCLEAR COMPARISON
Inferior the filthy headings (Technology, The Environment, Gregarious and Collective Concerns, and Economy) that were portraitured to weigh the coal-transmutation liberty, a inexpressive itememary has been made of the nuclear liberty coercion contemptibleity purposes. Technology Gentle insinuate reactors are a very contemptible cem of nuclear reactor. They bear amiconducive escort records, and most bear excellent space constituents. There fruit has been rectilineal, with technology now substance suited from Japan, Korea, France, the Itemed Kingdom as polite-mannered-mannered as the Itemed States. They are portraitured in bar vicinity to the Philippines (Japan, Korea and Taiwan) and bear been armarked coercion portraiture in Indonesia and Malaysia. The Bataan item is 1970/80’s technology. It is nevertheless superfluously the selfselfsame as upstart items, and could be readily upgraded to 1990’s standards. The Environment The reactor achieve whole ardent defilement (desolate intensity) that achieve be handy of, unpremeditated Napot Point to the South China Deep. An environmental impression toll cleared the set coercion its proposaled intensity arrangement, and rest that localised intensitying of the deep would referconducive be exorbitant, grantn the cecible currents that would fix distribution of the burning insinuate.
No other polluting speechs could be expected from the nuclear might set. (Accidental speechs of radioactive representative, are most incredible. Once the set was upgraded to 1997 standards, undivided property in a pet years could be expected. ) Gregarious and Collective Concerns The perceived problems at the Bataan might set are its first amenability. These problems comprise seismic inconstancy, claims of defective exertionmanship and the bankruptcy of habit of the operators. Divers geological and seismic inspections bear been carried quenched on the place, with the conclusion substance that no expressive miss is conspicuous.
To inoculate Philippine Society of the seismic escort of the set, an educational catalogue would deficiency to be carried quenched that emphasised the places possession, and the excellent seismic escort constituent of the set (0. 4g). Distribute of the rule of refurbishment and upgrading, would be disposition selfreliance on undiminished classifications and components of the set. Later QA techniques would deficiency to be portraitured to procure the positiveness that undiminished expressive distributes of the set encounter the excellentest escort and actional standards. Initially coercioneign experts would be deficiencyed to confmanifestation the set. The reinoculation of
Philippine staff would grasp extensive duration and principal, with the retrained staff spending a estimate of years helping in permitted contemptible sets in neighbouring countries. Economics By contemptibleity with the exacts of transmutation to coal or cosmical fog, the refurbishment and upgrading of the set coercion nuclear action would be expressively cheaper. A acme appraisement of $US300m (including staff inoculation) is a spotless condition, compared to fossil fuel transmutation alternatives. The nuclear liberty should bear the briefest idle duration in stipulations of upgrading and commissioning.
If coercioneign staff were portraitured to initially romance the set then a era of eighteen to twenty months would be deficiencyed coercion bountiful action. This proportionately brief era, may be estimconducive in that the some of the excellent-priced, long-standing or present glaze vital-principled might set could be lone advenient. Fuel exacts, plus action and treatment exacts coercion LWRs should exact no past than ? US 2/kWH (0. 54 Centavos/kWH). If the concern on the $US 300m was 12%, with a restore era of twenty years coercion the excellent, then a exalt 0. 9? US/kWH would be added to the might exact.
The combine might exact would be 2. 9? US/kWH (0. 78 Centavos/kWH). If compensation was grantn to general the Bataan might unpremeditatedice as a nuclear set, then the environmental and economic benefits (as polite-mannered-mannered as escort) should be emphasised, to aggravateconclude gregarious and collective obstacle. THE PHILIPPINES AND THE NUCLEAR CYCLE The Philippines would be an trader of nuclear fuel and an exporter of departed fuel. The fuel that the reactor would portraiture would be gentlely possessed. As the uranium 235 is consumed, some plutonium is coercionmed, distribute of which is to-boot portraitured up as fuel.
The departed fuel rods hold a depleted whole of uranium 235, a paltry plutonium except in-great-measure non-fissile uranium 238. These fuel rods can be reused in slow insinuate cem reactors (CANDU) that are general in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, as pristine fuel. Undiminished the desolates would be ruleed by those countries, whilst the Philippines would assent-to a financial grant-back coercion its portraitured nuclear fuel. This is a gain-gain footing. The sale of the portraitured fuel rods could produce the entangle coercionmation exact of electricity (fuel plus actions and treatment) to inferior ? US 1. 5/kWH. PLANT SECURITY AND THE NUCLEAR OPTION
Unfortunately there is an ongoing insurgency footing in the Philippines. The insurgency problems are no longer main, and in undiminished appearance achieve withdraw. Undiminished main set nevertheless does deficiency a escort classification. The Bataan set was invented with amiconducive visible, perimeter and inside escort classifications. There are commsingly perceived referableions that Nuclear Sets are sensitive to terrorist assault. These referableions are installed on a bankruptcy of inferiorstanding of the compound regularity of nuclear sets, and the closeness of very extensive holdment structures coercion the reactor and fuel stores – chiefly American proposaled LWRs.
The set is referable-difficult to escort, and would be conducive to rebuff assault with gentle weapons, including rocket propelled grenades romanceageeseeing. The loss from such an assault would be conditioned to the knocking quenched of assistant set and structures, including the transformer yard, the abetting fuel tanks and government fabrication. Referablees 1. The overhead might exact figures are installed on 1997 contemplated fuel appraisements, 12% concern, 85% availability, and 20 years amortisation.. The appraisement of coal and cosmical fog are considered to be past liconducive coercion main extensions, than nuclear fuel.
The Asian call-ce coercion twain coal and fog is expected to quenchedstrip afford in the hereafter decade. 2. The considerd edifice duration comprises artificening and proposal, equipment edifice, place species, set edifice and commissioning, and staff inoculation (coal and cosmical fog transmutation). If main assistant exertions are exactd (eg. main wharves, ash and coal pipelines, shipping channels romanceageeseeing), then twain an extension in the edifice duration and exacts could be expected.