PHIL623 Healthcare Ethics
Assessment Task 1
Multiple-choice and Short-answer Questions
Due date: Friday September 18, by 5pm
Weighting: 30%
Length and/or format: 15 multiple choice (1 mark each) and 3 short answer questions (5 marks each).
How to submit: Submit through LEO by following the link in the Assessment block of LEO.
Return of assignment: Electronically, via LEO Grades.
Assessment criteria:
1. Demonstrated comprehension of basic concepts and theories (90%)
2. Clarity of expression and structuring of thoughts (10%)
ASSESSMENT TASK 1
(A) Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose one (1) answer only. There is one (and only one) clearly correct answer for each question.
Tip: there are no trick questions here. It helps to pay close attention to the wording of each question.
1. Aristotle’s ethics places emphasis on:
A. Developing moral character
B. Doing one’s duty
C. Physical pleasures
D. Acting to promote the best consequences
2. A moral philosopher you have studied who comes closest to what can be called
‘common sense morality’ is:
A. Immanuel Kant
B. Peter Singer
C. Aristotle
D. Homer Simpson
3. Rawls’ signature Difference Principle implies that:
A. Inequality is forbidden under any circumstance
B. A redistribution is permitted so that wealth may trickle down to the poor
C. The worst-off rationally ought to permit greater inequality if they benefit from such a change
D. Wealth redistribution is permissible if it makes a difference to health budgets
4. A key objection to moral subjectivism is that:
A. Two subjectivists cannot rationally have an argument over what is objectively morally true
B. We do not have subjective moral emotions
C. Ethics depends essentially on conventions
D. Morality is relative to each person’s subjective opinion
5. On a Divine Command view of morality an act A is right only because:
A. A is right in itself
B. God’s will constitutes A’s rightness
C. Evil forces always act against God
D. Doing A maximises good consequences
6. A claim most closely associated with utilitarianism is that:
A. Lying is always wrong
B. You should treat others as you would have them treat you
C. Actions are right if they lead to the greatest happiness for the greatest number D. Our conscience is the best guide to acting morally
7. People have intrinsic dignity because:
A. No human person is replaceable
B. It is something we can give or take away from each other
C. Lacking dignity would lead to bad consequences
D. Dignity has an incredibly high price
8. In ethics two key ideas definitive of autonomy are:
A. Automaticity and hegemony
B. Respect and the capacity to love
C. Self-efficacy and consent
D. Self-governance and self-determination
9. In clinical care, rational compassion (or ‘great compassion’) does not require empathy because:
A. Rational people never display empathy
B. Empathic people only care about people they know
C. Compassion is not centrally about having feelings for others
D. Empathy (feeling what another feels) can work against good levels of professional detachment
10. Moral integrity would be hard to practice as a utilitarian because:
A. People with moral integrity find rules appealing
B. Utilitarianism sometimes requires a person to act in ways inconsistent with their core values
C. Utilitarianism is hard to practice
D. Utilitarians with moral integrity are rare
11. That the foundations of morality rest completely on conscience is problematic because:
A. There can be (indeed there are) cases of bad people who act with a conscience
B. The possession of a moral conscience can lead to having sympathy for people we may not respect
C. Doing the morally correct thing has nothing to do with acting on conscience D. Most people who consult their conscience are not in touch with reality
12. A healthcare professional who formed an ongoing romantic relationship with a patient/client would be acting unethically because:
A. Romance in the clinic is unseemly
B. The governing conditions for this kind of professional-client relationship are based on the moral goals of healthcare (the prevention of disease/disorder), which do not include romance
C. Other clients/patients may become jealous of this special attention D. Romance in the clinic would breach a utilitarian principle
13. Suppose some government formulated a healthcare policy making the very rich much better off (in healthcare terms) than the poor; however, this policy also has the effect of
raising the level of healthcare for the poor, though not by much. Everyone’s healthcare goes up, but unequally. This change is most compatible with:
A. The hypothetical imperative
B. The principle of respect for persons
C. The difference principle
D. Libertarianism
14. A patient may seek the services of an advocate (i.e., a patient advocate) when:
A. Her rights around informed consent in a medical setting have been breached
B. She is feeling distressed and unhappy
C. She needs advice in relation to her share portfolio
D. She wants someone to help her make a will
15. No one could have a legitimate entitlement to healthcare according to:
A. Liberalism
B. Communitarianism
C. A Libertarian approach
D. A Rawlsian approach
(B) Short-Answer Questions
Answer three (3) questions in total, one from Module 1, one from Module 2, and one from Module 3.
Each question should be about half a page (250-300 words).
Module 1 questions (choose one of these)
(1) Both Rachels and Singer (from your readings) argue for a ‘first base’ or ‘minimalist’ conception of ethics. Their arguments converge on the idea that acting ethically must factor in the interests of all those affected by what a person does (or fails to do). What is your understanding of this idea, and do you agree that any ethical theory ought to require it? Present your reasons.
OR
(2) Which of the normative theories (described in Part 2 of Module 1) do you think best supports healthcare ethics? (Hint: it is possible to think that some combination of theories is best suited.)
Module 2 questions (choose one of these)
(1) A person may lose his or her dignity in either of the two senses we have outlined in the online Module notes. Provide two examples (real or hypothetical) that depict such losses (an example for each sense), and explain why you think dignity is lost in the cases you mention.
OR
(2) Are there cases in which the autonomy of the patient can be overridden? If you think so, provide such a case, and give reasons why you think it can. If you think autonomy can never be overridden, explain why you think so.
Module 3 questions (choose one of these)
(1) Can too much (or even just some) empathy compromise good professional judgement? Present your reasons. (Hint: refer to the work of Paul Bloom.)
OR
(2) Refer to your reading by Norman Daniels. What is Daniels’ argument for thinking that healthcare has special moral importance.

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