World Health Organization ( WHO ) is an organisation that established by the United Nations in 1945. An thought about set uping WHO was from former wellness organisations such as Health Organization of the League of Nations. One twelvemonth subsequently in 22 July 1946, the fundamental law of the WHO had been signed by all 61 states of the UN, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly completing on 24 April 1948. The Fundamental law of WHO came into force on 7 April 1948- a day of the month we now celebrate every twelvemonth as World Health Day. Until now, WHO has been responsible for catching diseases, in peculiar, malaria and TB, and besides HIV/AIDS which we ‘re traveling to speak about in this paper.
The chief variety meats of WHO are the World Health Assembly, the Executive Board, and the secretariat, headed by a director-general. Harmonizing to WHO ( 2012 ) , the World Health Assembly has more than 190 provinces as the members. Each member has one ballot in policies of the organisation, budgetary, administrative, and similar inquiries. By two tierce of the ballot, the assembly may make up one’s mind the determination or understanding. The assembly holds the meeting yearly in May at Geneva. The executive board has 32 members. Each 32 members of the board are elected by the World Health Assembly for the three old ages term. Board members serve as persons and non as representatives of their authoritiess. They meet twice a twelvemonth. The secretariat consists of the proficient and administrative forces of the organisation. It is headed by a manager general, chosen by the World Health Assembly.
The WHO ‘s most of import intent which listed in The Constitution of WHO ( 1946 ) is “ the enjoyment of the highest come-at-able criterion of wellness is one of the cardinal rights of every human being without differentiation of race, faith, political, belief, economic or societal status ” . In order to accomplish this intent the promotive schemes are needed. Investing in wellness to cut down poorness, constructing single and planetary wellness security, advancing cosmopolitan coverage, gender equality, and wellness related human rights, undertaking the determiners of wellness, and beef uping wellness systems and just entree are the illustrations of those schemes.
There are many maps of WHO. First, WHO provide leading on the wellness job and engage in the partnership where WHO attend action. When one state has a wellness job, WHO is the caput for seeking the solutions for that state. Second, WHO organizes the research docket which make the people understand and remain watchful about wellness issue and transmit of the valuable information and cognition about the wellness to every state. Third, WHO set up the norm, standard and advance their execution. Fourth, WHO provides proficient support and counsel. Fifth, WHO dominates the wellness state of affairs on the universe and reference wellness tendency.
Until now we could see through brief debut of what is WHO. By this, we realize WHO is n’t merely bing for nil. Indeed, WHO is one of the most effectual organisations in forestalling the spread of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore we will discourse about what is HIV/AIDS? What WHO do when HIV/AIDS occur in one state? Is at that place any different positions about WHO ‘s work in AIDS?
II- History of HIV/AIDS
AIDS ( Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ) is one of the most fatal unwellnesss in the universe, which causes by HIV I ( Human Immunodeficiency Viruses ) , have been killing million of victims all over the universe merely over 30 old ages ago. AIDS does n’t infect by merely holding sex ( unwritten, vaginal, or anal ) , but besides sharing blood, sharing needle ( drug utilizing, tattoo, piercingsaˆ¦ ) ; infecting from ma, who got AIDS to the fetal. It kills victims by weaken down immune system in a complication manner. So where does AIDS come from? When and how it become the scariest unwellness?
It ‘s believed that AIDS was originated in Africa. In the early yeas HIV was an unknown and feared virus that menace and scare people about its fatal. After a movie star Rock Hudson died in October/2nd/1985, piano player Liberane died in February/4th/1987, and other more celebrated people died, the unwellness started to known by people. HIV emerged in the late twentieth century. In the sixtiess and 1970s, AIDs was appeared by infecting from Pan troglodytes to worlds in Africa. A 1998 analysis suggested that HIV-1 was occurred in 1960s in West Africa. In 1981 is the distributing AIDS syndrome. There were two ways, Kaposi ‘s sarcoma and pneumonia ( PCP ) gay homosexual in New York City. In 1982 is the syndrome was created as AIDS ( Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ) . In 1983, World Health Organization ( WHO ) took action in France and US. In 1986 in UK AIDS was called as HIV ( Human Immunodeficiency Virus ) . In add-on, AZT ( azidothymidine or Retrovir ) anti-HIV drug was found. Mandal said ( n.d. ) “ In 2000 ‘s, by 2000,34.3 million instances of HIV worldwide, with largest figure in South Africa, were estimated. HIV vaccinum tests began in Oxford in 2000. In 2003 in Swaziland and Botswana in Southern Africa, about 40 % of grownups HIV+ AIDS vaccinum failed, Enfuviride a new drug called merger in hibitor was approved in the USA. In 2005 drug companies and shapers agreed to do available cheaper generic anti-viral drug. ”
Over 30 old ages AIDS has killed 1000000s of people, left many orphanhoods. Though WHO and all authoritiess around the universe have tried a remedy for this unwellness, there has n’t had any medical specialty to bring around this syndrome yet. In order to diminish this AIDS syndrome, people should good aware about how to forestall and protect themselves from this fatal unwellness.
III- The Challenges of World Health Organization in AIDS plan
The WHO is regarded as one of the taking organisations in forestalling and halting AIDS and they are besides praised for their committedness and scheme. The run is concentrating on zero new HIV infection, zero deceases from AIDS related unwellnesss and zero favoritism against people populating with HIV/AIDS ( WHO, 2011 ) .However, there are ever the obstruction that or issues that they have been confronting since the beginning of their spreading of HIV bar plan
a. Education and Communication
The WHO plan against AIDS focal point on Lashkar-e-Taiba people to cognize HIV/AIDS and how to forestall it. However, Knowledge of AIDS is limited to some states that are low in instruction, wellness, and communicating. Those people that live there were really vulnerable to the disease and easy infected to other people. Hence, when UNTAC arrive in 1992 Cambodia to reconstruct peace, they besides carried AIDS that was distributing throughout Cambodia. During that clip Cambodia was in the procedure of stoping the ongoing civil wars that have lasted for decennaries. The Kampuchean was comparatively incognizant of this deathly epidemic. Harmonizing to WHO, by 1995 there were between 50,000 and 90,000 Cambodians infected by HIV. The grounds why it expanded so fast were the deficiency of cognition of Aids, how lifelessly it was, and how it infected from individual to individual.
B. Stigma and Discrimination
The Secretary General Ban Ki Moon says:
“ Sigma remains the individual most of import barrier to public action. it is a chief ground why excessively many people are afraid to see a physician whether they have the disease or to seek intervention if so. It helps do AIDS the soundless slayer, because people fear the societal shame of talking about it, or taking easy available safeguard. Stigma is a main ground why the AIDS epidemic continues to lay waste to societies around the universe. ”
Because HIV/AIDS is unsafe disease that has killed 1000000s of people around the universe and so people view to it ever in strong manner. Peoples that infected ever find themselves isolated from the society because they merely seem to experience ashamed and fright of favoritism from their household and society. The WHO believes that the bar and decrease of HIV will alter the attitude of people ‘s discriminate toward the people populating HIV.
c. Religious Belief
Because of the primary spreading AIDS through sexual intercourse, The WHO has recommended the people all over to utilize the rubbers in order to protect them from AIDS infecting. Nevertheless, The Roman-Catholic church has been opposing thought of utilizing the rubber through their spiritual belief as the act of wickedness. Pope Benedict XVI said on a trip to see Africa in 2009 claims that by utilizing rubbers it could do the AIDS issue in Africa become much worse. His statement besides made the other Catholic in other states believer condemned the thought of utilizing rubber although some of them live in the development states and understand how lifelessly the disease is. The World Health Assembly President, Guyana ‘s Health Minister Leslie Ramsammy disapproved of the Catholic Pope position and regarded as the act of distributing confusion in Africa where it badly suffered from the AIDS epidemic. She stated “ The statement by the Pope is inconsistent with our experiences and it is non in sync with what Catholics have experienced and believe. ” The bottom line is the WHO is fighting to convert and urge the manner that people can avoid and cognize how to protect them from Aids, but the WHO can non implement people to make it.
IV- Case Study1: Cambodia
HIV/AIDS is epidemic in Cambodia unusually. After the instance of HIV was found in Cambodia in 1991, predominating of infection increased extremely of 2 per centum in 1998. In general population, the prevailing decreased to 0.5 per centum in 2009. Between 2003 and 2005 the statistics of infective HIV among Kampuchean grownups aged 15-49 was low down from 2 per centum to 1.6 per centum. 63000 people were populating with HIV in Cambodia in 2011. The infection of epidemic HIV is spread through by heterosexual transmittal, sex trade, shooting drug user and so on. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Cambodia is among the highest in Asia. Even though Cambodia is one of the poorest states in the universe ; HIV bar and control attempt made by Royal Government and Organizations have helped to cut down the spread of HIV. The Cambodia ‘s authorities fined methods, in order to cut down the spread of HIV. The authorities implement on human trafficking and sexual development. In the execution, constabularies find the location such as whorehouses, in order to caught and steer the sex worker and notably the sex workers who do the sex trade on streets, bars, and informal karaoke. Furthermore, the voluntary plans about learning HIV/AIDS instruction can besides forestall HIV. In order to do the Kampuchean citizen know profoundly about HIV, voluntary squad convey up the issue that related to HIV/AIDS to steer about how to forestall from this rough diseases in schoolroom or communities. Furthermore, they try to maintain future coevals safe from this disease. In that, WHO took action with ministry of wellness of Cambodia to cut down the spread of HIV. The ministry of wellness of Cambodia with WHO support, established the Nation AIDS plan ( NAP ) . The purpose of NAP from 1991-1994 is to denote the consciousness and to advance the utilizing of rubber among the both gender. In order to protect citizen from this deathly disease, they have to cognize how to utilize condom decently. Furthermore, ministry of wellness of Cambodia generated the plans that related to the apprehension and counsel of HIV by many medias such as Television, wirelesss, proclamation and so on.
V- Case Study2: Swaziland
In Swaziland, a little landlocked state in Southern Africa, it has the highest HIV prevalence in the universe, which accounted for 33.4 % of entire population in 2006 ( USAIDS Repot ) . Aids had spread over the state and led to the Aids catastrophe state around 25 old ages. Since, the first instance of study in1986, Swaziland authorities and WHO work to supply information and instruction on HIV ; promote rubber usage ; pull off the spread of sexually transmitted infections and many policy in order to forestall Aids, but “ In 1992 the prevalence is merely 3.9 % , but in 2007 it increase to 39.2 % ” ( USAIDS study ) . Even the authorities and many international organisation had tried to forestall and halt the spread of AIDs, it seem can non command good. “ In 2009 the entire population is 1,200,000 and the people populating with Aids is180,000 ; The adult females age above 15 old ages old life with HIV is 100,000 ; kids 14,000 and Adult 25.9 % , and AIDs deaths 7,000 ” ( Population Reference BureauA & A ; A UNAIDS ) . It is still worse if comparison to adjacent states
Harmonizing to UNAIDS Executive Director Michel Sidibe presented study in February 2010 when visited Swaziland “ A study gauging that 3 in every 100 people in Swaziland will be infected with HIV every twelvemonth taking to an expected 18,000 new infections each twelvemonth by 2012. ”
Now in Swaziland, there are 2 chief go oning models supported by The National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS ( NERCHA ) together with UNAIDS. One Strategic Framework and One Monitoring and Evaluation Framework with the full name is National Strategic Framework on HIV and AIDS ( NSF ) 2009-2014 and The National HIV and AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Framework 2009-2014, aligned and work together. It realize that these models impact consequence such as: Better the Swaziland Human Development Index from 0.542 reported in 2008 to 0.55 in 2014 ; Reducing Swaziland incidence rate of HIV from 2.9 in 2008 to 2.3 % in 2014 ; Increased life anticipation from 40.2 old ages in 2008 to 44 old ages in 2014 ; Increase the per centum of families with vulnerable persons that are able to get by with the impact of HIV from 72 % in 2008 to 80 % in 2014 ; Increase the per centum of vulnerable persons that report that all the services they receive were relevant, seasonably, and comprehensive and of good quality to 70 % in 2014 ; And increase the per centum of mid-term and terminal of NSF service coverage marks ( end product degree ) that have been met in the countries of HIV bar, intervention attention and support and impact extenuation has increase to 80 % by terminal of NSF in 2014.
The World Health Organization ( WHO ) play an of import function recommended collaborative TB/HIV activities as portion of nucleus HIV and TB ( Tuberculosis ) bar, attention and intervention services. WHOs ‘ action included intercessions that cut down the morbidity and mortality from TB in people populating with HIV. WHO is besides a usher for Swaziland, Harmonizing to WHO guidelines, all co-infected patients should be started on ART ( Antiretroviral Therapy ) every bit shortly as they can digest TB intervention.
Although advancement has been made with respects to intervention and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission ( PMTCT ) , poorness, gender inequality and harmful cultural patterns continue to lend to a high hazard of HIV infection among the general population. There is still an pressing demand for effectual bar enterprises, including a greater focal point on bettering entree to HIV proving installations. The highly high rate ofA TB ( TB ) A co-infection with HIV is besides a major concern and the chief cause of mortality in the state. Swaziland ‘s King has been criticized for his “ blazing neglect ” for the factors lending to the AIDS epidemic in his state and populating a munificent life style, while his state is in such a desperate state of affairs. When the King chartered a plane to take his 13 married womans on an international shopping trip in 2008, 100s of Swazi adult females protested, shouting “ we need to maintain that money for ARVs! ”
Swaziland, even the WHO, USAIDS and the authorities created policy and good practicing, but as you can see the statistic in paragraph 3, Swaziland has more things to travel and more things to reform in order to accomplish the end.
To sum up, many people think WHO is working for several things but non truly making their work. Yet our paper provinces that WHO is a powerful histrion of halting and blockading HIV/AIDS to be expanded by directing specializer to corporate with authorities, steering the manner to assist people populating with HIV, making learning plan for local nurse, supplying assistance to assist authorities, describing about AIDS yearly. Besides, WHO corporate really good with UNAIDS who is act the most in prevent AIDS. Indeed, WHO besides has things to be fixed. Lack of instruction, favoritism and spiritual belief are those jobs to be fixed. These jobs should be solved. It would n’t be an easy undertaking for WHO but if WHO endure it, it will be a measure for WHO to travel frontward. Overall, WHO is truly making difficult and effectual work approximately AIDS around the universe.
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