Down syndrome and leukemia
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that involves an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are tiny threads that carry genetic information or genes in humans (Naess, 2015). Genes are responsible for how the formation of the body takes place, how it works, how people look at eye and hair color and determine the personality of an individual. The human body is made up of cells responsible for the maintenance and growth of the human body. In the nucleus, there are genes that control and influence the properties that humans inherit (Cosmas, 2012). Children acquire the genes from their parents. Many people have two copies of each gene, with the father of one child contributing one gene and the mother contributing the other gene.
Human genes are assembled in long strands known as chromosomes. The strands carry the genetic information. In most cases, there are a total of forty-six (46) chromosomes with 23 pairs in each cell. Each pair of chromosomes contains unique genes. Down syndrome occurs in infants born at the 21st mating with an additional chromosome. Therefore, infants have a total of 47 chromosomes, resulting in disruption of the normal growth of the developing infant (Maris, 2016). It is considered a genetic accident that takes place during conception, and it is not anyone’s fault. It does not happen because a person has done something during pregnancy.

There are three common types of Down syndrome. The first is the regular trisomy or standard trisomy in which all cells have extra chromosome 21. The majority of people with a Down syndrome equal to 94 percent own this type. The second is the translocation, in which an additional chromosome 21 material is bound to another chromosome. Four percent of people with Down syndrome have this type. In addition, one-third of individuals with this type acquired it through inheritance. The third type is known as a mosaic, in which some cells in the body contain additional chromosome 21. Only 2 percent of people with Down syndrome have this type. It is also considered a rarer type. The type of genetic variation of the individual does not appear to significantly alter the effects of Down syndrome. However, people with the mosaic type of Down syndrome may experience less delay in some features of their development.

According to research, every thousandth child is born with Down syndrome. In addition, an estimated 6,000 babies with Down syndrome are born each year in the United States. In addition, it is estimated that nearly 85 percent of newborns with Down syndrome are able to survive one year. 50 percent of them will be able to live more than 50 years longer. The National Down Syndrome Society estimates there are over 350,000 people living with Down syndrome in the US. People with Down syndrome are born in all races, religions, and classes (Korbel, 2009). This implies that the Down syndrome affects all backgrounds, regardless of religion, race or class. However, there is a clear association with the advanced age of the mother and the Down syndrome for reasons that are not yet known. However, many infants with Down syndrome are infants under the age of 35, as younger women have a high birth rate.

According to Head (2016), couples who have previously given birth to a child with Down syndrome are most likely to have future Down Syndrome pregnancies. This is because one of the parents is a balanced resettler. The age of the mother as a risk factor for Down’s syndrome can be explained when a woman’s eggs consequently increase the risk that the chromosomes will not divide properly.

Down syndrome infants are more likely to develop more slowly than other normal babies. They tend to learn to walk and talk much more than babies who usually develop. Some may develop stomach problems that affect both excretion and digestion. Infections can affect the breathing and lungs, as well as ears or eyes that can last longer. In addition, persons with Down syndrome are at greater risk for certain health problems such as congenital heart disease, hearing problems, increased susceptibility to infections, and respiratory problems. Some may also have clogged digestive tracts and sleep apnea

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