Sensitive and Conversation Product Milestones Draw Work

[WLO: 1] [CLO: 1]

Prior to initiation is-sue on this enactment, 

The sight of this enactment is to creatively teach an agreement of productal milestones as they pertain to cognition and conversation product.

Part 1: Domiciled on the exactd instrument overhead, imagine a offshootren’s draw work using StoryJumper (Links to an exterior position.) that tells a anecdote encircling a offshoot’s usual day. Your anecdote must condense at smallest indecent sensitive and indecent conversation product milestones ce the date-group you possess clarified. Your anecdote can be encircling a fictional offshoot or can be domiciled on a discloseed offshoot. Watch the video, StoryJumper Tutorial (Links to an exterior position.), ce countenance in using AnecdoteJumper.

To finished this enactment, you must

  • Imagine a offshootren’s draw work using AnecdoteJumper.
  • Identify at smallest indecent sensitive product milestones divert to the date-group clarified.
  • Distinguish at smallest indecent conversation product milestones divert to the date-group clarified.
  • Examine a usual day divert to the date-group clarified.

Part 2: Open the Sensitive and Conversation Product Milestones Draw Work Template and finished the aftercited items:

  • Contribute the converge to the AnecdoteJumper draw work you imagined in Part 1.
  • Mark which date-group your draw work gain examine.
  • List at smallest indecent sensitive product milestones that are intermediate in your draw work.
  • List at smallest indecent conversation product milestones that are intermediate in your draw work.
  • Submit your Word instrument to Methodpoint.

The Sensitive and Conversation Product Milestones Draw Work:

  • Must be eight to 10 pages of extrstrike in extension (referable including appellation page, images, and references page) and cematted unitying to APA fashion as quenchedlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Fashion (Links to an exterior position.)
  • Must seize a disunited appellation pdate with the aftercited:
    • Appellation of draw work
    • Student’s call
    • Course cperfect and number
    • Instructor’s call
    • Date submitted
  • Must instrument any instruction used from sources in APA fashion as quenchedlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Amid Your Paper (Links to an exterior position.)
  • Must seize a disunited references pdate or slide that is cematted unitying to APA fashion as quenchedlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Behold the Formatting Your References List (Links to an exterior position.) instrument in the Ashford Writing Center ce specifications. 

CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY

Piaget’s Sensitive-Developunsubstantial Assumption (p. 226)

According to Piaget, how does cognition disclose?

■ Piaget’s constructivist bearing assumes that offshootren  discover intimateity through their possess soul, pretending through indecent  invariant, perfect measures. Unitying to Piaget, strangeborn infants possess  tiny in the method of built-in structures; merely at the sight of the remedy  year are they worthy of a sensitive bearing to the globe through unsubstantial fidelitys.

■ In Piaget’s assumption, subjective structures, or schemes, alter with date in span methods: through adaptation, which consists of span complementary strikeivities—assimilation and accommodation; and through organization, the material rearrangement of schemes to cem a strongly interconnected sensitive order. Equilibration describes the changing estimate of assimilation and grace that spiritual leads to over powerful schemes.

The Sensorimotor Measure: Birth to 2 Years (p. 228)

Describe elder sensitive acquirements of Piaget’s sensorimotor measure.

■ In the sensorimotor measure, the circular reaction  provides a instrument of adapting primitive schemes, and the strangeborn baby’s  reflexes transgain into the older infant’s over lithe renewal  patterns. Eight- to 12-month-olds disclose intentional, or goal-directed, behavior and commence to overcome sight renovation. Twelve- to 18-month-olds behove emobject height solvers and no longer gain the A-not-B inquiry error.  Between 18 and 24 months, unsubstantial fidelity is visible in rash  solutions to heights, overcomey of sight renovation tasks involving  invisible displacement, plentiful likeness, and make-honor illustrate.

What does follow-up reinquiry discover encircling infant sensitive product and the truthfulness of Piaget’s sensorimotor measure?

■ Many studies propose that infants ostentation sundry agreements  antecedent than Piaget honord. Some awareness of sight renovation, as  revealed by the violation-of-expectation method, may be visible  in the primitive closinging months, although inquirying ce hidden sights is a penny  sensitive gait. Puerile infants so ostentation plentiful likeness,  categorization, and anaargumentative height solving, and toddlers depict rationally, by inferring others’ intentions—acquirements that exstrike unsubstantial fidelity.

Displaced reference—the discloseedization that guide can be used  to intimation unsubstantial images of things referable tangiblely present—is a elder  symbolic gait that occurs environing the primitive birthday. The compatforce to  use conversation to deviate unsubstantial fidelitys improves from the sight of  the remedy into the third year. By the intermediate of the remedy year,  toddlers negotiate discloseedistic-looking draws letterically.

■ Today, most examinationers honor that strangeborns possess over built-in  sensitive equipment ce making recognition of test than Piaget antecedent,  although they vary on how ample moderate agreement infants possess.

The Preoperational Measure: 2 to 7 Years (p. 239)

Describe gaits in unsubstantial fidelity and sensitive limitations during the preoperational measure.

■ Quick gaits in unsubstantial fidelity—notably, conversation, gain-honor illustrate, and drawing—occur during Piaget’s preoperational measure. With date, gain-honor behoves increasingly multifold, visible in sociodramatic illustrate. Offshootren’s drawings extension in multifoldity and discloseedism.

Dual fidelity improves during the third year as  outcome discloseedize that photographs, drawings, models, and single-minded maps  correspond to mood in the discloseed globe.

■ Piaget vivid preschoolers as referable still worthy of operations. Beorigin egocentrism prevents offshootren from gratifying, it contributes to animistic meditateing, centration, and closing of reversibility—difficulties that origin preschoolers to trip conservation and hierarchical stamp tasks.

What does follow-up reinquiry discover encircling preschoolers’ sensitive product and the truthfulness of Piaget’s preoperational measure?

■ When preschoolers are ardent intimate and simplified heights,  their operation is over aged than Piaget antecedent. They perfectow  differing perspectives, prize that animals (still referable unconscious  objects) possess bioargumentative properties, possess lithe and divert  notions of enchantment, and infer encircling changeations and origin-and-effect  relations.

■ Preschoolers so pomp restraintcible expertness at categorizing on the  basis of nonobservable characteristics, discovering that their meditateing is  referable dominated by appearances. Rather than substance absent in the prediscipline  years, operational meditateing discloses spiritual.

The Indurated Operational Measure: 7 to 11 Years (p. 249)

What are the elder characteristics of Piaget’s indurated operational measure?

■ During the indurated operational measure, conception behoves  over argumentative, lithe, and unembarrassed. Overcomey of guardianship exacts  decentration and reversibility. Offshootren so behove practised at  hierarchical stamp and seriation, including transitive inference. Spatial infering improves, as involved by offshootren’s sensitive maps.

■ Indurated operational conception is scant in that offshootren possess  difficulty infering encircling contemplative ideas. Overcomey of Piaget’s indurated  operational tasks conducts locate spiritual.

Examine follow-up reinquiry on indurated operational conception.

■ Cultural manners and instruction pretend offshootren’s overcomey of  Piagetian tasks. Indurated operations are heavily influenced by trailing,  context, and cultural conditions.

The Cemal Operational Measure: 11 Years and Older (p. 253)

Describe elder characteristics of the cemal operational stdate and usual consequences of adolescents’ advancing cognition.

■ In Piaget’s ceremonious operational measure, adolescents behove worthy of hypothetico-deductive infering.  When faced with a height, they set-quenched with a fancy encircling variables  that cleverness pretend an quenchedcome; draw argumentative, testable inferences; and  systematically separate and combine variables to behold which inferences are  confirmed.

■ Adolescents so disclose propositional conception—the restraintce to evaluate the logic of vocal statements quenchedside referring to discloseed-globe mood.

■ As adolescents image on their possess conceptions, span aslant images of the interdependence between headstrong and other appear: the imaginary audience and the personal fable. Twain termination from gains in perspective prelude.

■ Adolescents’ compatforce to meditate encircling possibilities alerts  idealistic visions at odds with trite discloseedity, and they repeatedly behove  fault-finding critics.

■ Compared with adults, adolescents are near powerful at conclusion  making. They conduct greater risks underneathneath emotionally teeming conditions,  near repeatedly search alternatives, and over repeatedly droop tail on well-behaved-learned  intuitive judgments.

What does follow-up reinquiry discover encircling cemal operational conception?

■ On tasks requiring hypothetico-deductive infering, discipline-date  outcome canreferable evaluate token that bears on three or over variables  at uninterruptedly. They so do referable seize the argumentative necessity of propositional conception.

■ Adolescents and adults are most slight to meditate contemplatively and  systematically in situations in which they possess had big direction  and manner in using such infering. Idiosyncratics in tribal and villdate  societies sometimes do well-behaved-behaved on tasks usually used to assess cemal  operational infering. Literature strikeivities in discipline contribute adolescents  with abundant opportunities to attain cemal operations.

Piaget and Education (p. 259)

Describe educational implications of Piaget’s assumption.

■ A Piagetian classroom furthers solution literature, sensitivity to  children’s willingness to gather, and tally of idiosyncratic  differences.

Overperfect Evaluation of Piaget’s Assumption (p. 260)

Summarize contributions and shortcomings of Piaget’s assumption.

■ Piaget emphasized offshootren’s locomotive contributions to their possess  development, orthodox the coeval convergence on mechanisms of sensitive  change, and contributed a profitable “road map” of sensitive product.  However, he offered merely a intangible recital of how cognition alters.  Children’s sensitive acquirements are near consistent and over continuous than  Piaget’s measures mark.

■ Some examinationers refuse Piaget’s measures occasion retaining his survey  of sensitive product as an locomotive, auricular regularity. Others  substratum a near tightly knit stdate concept. Still others refuse twain  Piaget’s measures and his assurance in the being of public infering  abilities.

The Heart Intimateity Perspective (p. 261)

Elucidate the heart intimateity perspective on sensitive product, referableing reinquiry that substratums its assumptions.

■ Unitying to the heart intimateity perspective, infants are  innately equipped with heart lordships of conception that substratum quick  sensitive product. Each heart lordship is promotive ce course and  develops inconsequently, terminationing in undulating, lordship-specific alters.  Violation-of-expectation reinquiry proposes that puerile infants possess  forcible tangible and numerical intimateity.

■ The assumption assumption commendations offshootren as naïve theorists who  draw on qualitative concepts to elucidate their trite tests and then  test their assumption, revising it to recital ce strange instruction. In  substratum of this survey, offshootren infer encircling trite events in methods  consistent with the event’s heart lordship. Tangible and subjective  explanations escape antecedent than bioargumentative explanations, proposeing  that bioargumentative intimateity may possess tiny or no qualitative substratum.

What are the strengths and limitations of the heart intimateity perspective?

■ Heart intimateity examinationers are testing intriguing ideas encircling why  certain sensitive expertnesss escape existing and disclose quickly. Still critics  honor that violation-of-expectation studies are referable plentiful to pomp  that infants are sightowed with intimateity. The heart intimateity perspective  has referable offered clarity on how cognition alters.

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Assumption (p. 266)

Elucidate Vygotsky’s survey of sensitive product, referableing the weight of gregarious test and conversation.

■ Vygotsky surveyed rational cognition as inherently gregarious and saw  conversation as the substratum ce perfect surpassing sensitive regularityes. Unitying  to Vygotsky, privy oration, or conversation used ce headstrong-guidance,  emerges quenched of gregarious message as adults and over expertnessed compatriots  help offshootren overcome challenging tasks amid their zsingle of proximal product. Eventually, privy oration is materialized as material, vocal conception.

Intersubjectivity and scaffolding are span features of gregarious interrenewal that further sell of sensitive regularityes to offshootren. Guided participation perfectows cultural and situational changes in adult substratum of offshootren’s efforts.

According to Vygotsky, what is the role of gain-honor illustrate in sensitive product?

■ Vygotsky surveyed gain-honor illustrate as a rare, broadly  influential zsingle of proximal product in which offshootren gather to strike  in unity with material ideas rather than on motive.

Vygotsky and Education (p. 269)

Describe educational implications of Vygotsky’s assumption.

■ A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes assisted solution through  teachers’ direction and compatriot collaboration. When cemal instruction commences,  literacy strikeivities alert offshootren to change to a surpassing equalize of  sensitive soul, in which they practisedly feel and guide  their culture’s letter orders.

■ Vygotsky-domiciled educational innovations seize reciprocal instruction and cooperative literature, in which multiple partners inflame and encourdate single another.

Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Assumption (p. 272)

Cite strengths and limitations of Vygotsky’s assumption.

■ Vygotsky’s assumption helps us underneathstand ample cultural change in  sensitive expertnesss and underneathscores the material role of instruction in sensitive  development. Still in some cultures, vocal dialogues are referable the merely or  most great instrument through which offshootren gather. Vygotsky said tiny  encircling bioargumentative contributions to cognition and encircling how offshootren  internalize gregarious tests to gait their meditateing.

CHPATER 7 SUMMARY

The Information-Processing Approach (p. 278)

■ Information-processing theorists view the mind as a complex,symbol-manipulating system through which information flows,much like a computer. Researchers use computer-like diagramsand flowcharts to analyze thinking into its components, mappingthe precise steps involved in thinking about a task or problem.

A General Model of Information Processing (p. 278)

Describe the store model of the human information processingsystem, noting implications for cognitive development and relatedfindings.

■ We hold, or store, information in three parts of the mental systemfor processing. The sensory register takes in a wide panorama ofinformation, but only momentarily. The short-term memorystore retains attended-to information briefly so we can activelymanipulate it in working memory to accomplish our goals. The central executive is the conscious, reflective part of the system,directing the flow of information and implementing basicprocedures and complex strategies. The more effectively weprocess information, the greater the likelihood that mentalactivities will become automatic processes and that informationwill transfer to long-term memory, our limitless, permanentknowledge base.

■ The store model suggests, and research confirms, that severalaspects of the cognitive system improve with age. Working-memory capacity increases, with individual differences predictingintelligence test scores and academic achievement. Gains inprocessing speed also occur, contributing to working-memoryresources. Furthermore, children make strides in executivefunction, with preschoolers gaining in attention, suppressingimpulses, and flexible thinking and school-age children andadolescents in integration of cognitive operations and strategiesthat enable increasingly difficult tasks.

Developmental Theories of Information Processing (p. 282)

How do Case’s neo-Piagetian theory and Siegler’s model ofstrategy choice explain changes in children’s thinking?

■ Case’s neo-Piagetian theory accepts Piaget’s stages butattributes change within and between stages to greater efficiencyin use of working-memory capacity. Brain development, practicewith schemes and automization, and formation of centralconceptual structures contribute to development. Case’s theoryprovides an information-processing explanation of the continuumof acquisition—that many understandings appear in specificsituations at different times—and thus is better able than Piaget’stheory to account for unevenness in cognitive development.

■ Siegler’s model of strategy choice highlights children’sexperimentation with and selection of mental strategies to accountfor the diversity and ever-changing nature of children’s thinking.Strategy development follows an overlapping-waves pattern.When given challenging problems, children generate a variety ofstrategies, gradually selecting from them on the basis of accuracyand speed.

Attention (p. 286)

Describe the development of attention, including sustained,selective, and adaptable strategies.

■ Gains in sustained attention depend on rapid growth of theprefrontal cortex, the capacity to generate increasingly complexplay goals, and adult scaffolding of attention. As sustainedattention increases, children become better at focusing on relevantaspects of a task and at flexibly adapting attention to taskrequirements. Sustained, selective, and adaptable attention dependon inhibition, the ability to control distracting stimuli.

■ Development of attentional (and memory) strategies tends tooccur in four phases: (1) production deficiency (failure toproduce the strategy); (2) control deficiency (failure to executethe strategy effectively); (3) utilization deficiency (consistent useof the strategy, but with little or no performance improvement);and (4) effective strategy use.

■ From age 5 on, children undergo marked advances in planning.They learn much from cultural tools that support planning, adultguidance and encouragement, and opportunities to practice.

Memory (p. 292)

Describe the development of strategies for storing and retrievinginformation from memory.

■ Although the beginnings of memory strategies can be seen inearly childhood, young children seldom engage in rehearsal or organization. As use of these strategies improves, school-agechildren combine them; the more strategies they usesimultaneously, the better they remember. Elaboration emerges atthe end of middle childhood. Task demands and culturalcircumstances influence the development of memory strategies.

Recognition, the simplest form of retrieval, is a fairly automaticprocess that is highly accurate by the preschool years. Recall—generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus—is morechallenging, shows much greater improvement with age, and isstrongly associated with language development.

■ Even young children engage in reconstruction whenremembering complex, meaningful material. As originallyprovided information decays and new information is presented,children make more inferences, and the coherence ofreconstructed information and its memorableness increase.However, much recalled information can be inaccurate.

■ According to fuzzy-trace theory, when information is encoded, itis reconstructed automatically into a gist—a vague, fuzzy versionthat is especially useful for reasoning. With age, children rely lesson verbatim memory and more on reconstructed gists, contributingto improved recall of details with age.

Explain the development of episodic memory and its relationship tosemantic memory.

Semantic memory—our vast general knowledge system—contributes vitally to and develops earlier than episodic memory.Not until 3 or 4 years of age do children have a well-functioningmemory system of personally experienced events that occurred ata specific time and place.

■ Like adults, young children remember familiar experiences interms of scripts—a special form of episodic memory that permitsthem to predict what might happen on future similar occasions.And as preschoolers talk with adults about personally significantpast events, they adopt the narrative thinking generated in thesedialogues, forming an autobiographical memory. Childrenwhose parents use an elaborative rather than a repetitiveconversational style produce more coherent and detailed personalstories.

How does eyewitness memory change with age, and what factorsinfluence the accuracy of children’s reports?

■ Compared with preschoolers, school-age children are better atgiving accurate and detailed eyewitness accounts and resistingadults’ misleading questions. When a biased adult repeatedly asksleading questions, children are far more likely to give falseinformation. Negative stereotyping of the accused and a longdelay between the events and the child’s eyewitness report furthercontribute to inaccurate reporting.

Metacognition (p. 303)

Describe the development of metacognitive knowledge andcognitive self-regulation.

Metacognition expands greatly as children construct a naïve theory of mind, a coherent understanding of people as mentalbeings. From early to middle childhood, children becomeincreasingly conscious of cognitive capacities and strategies. Theycome to view the mind as an active, constructive agent rather thana passive container of information. As older children considerinteractions among variables, metacognitive knowledge becomesmore complex and integrated.

Cognitive self-regulation—continually monitoring andcontrolling progress toward a goal—develops gradually. Itimproves with adult instruction in effective strategy use andpredicts academic success.

Applications of Information Processing to AcademicLearning (p. 307)

Discuss the development of reading, mathematics, and scientificreasoning, noting the implications of research findings forteaching.

Emergent literacy reveals that young children understand a greatdeal about written language before they read and write inconventional ways. Preschoolers gradually revise incorrect ideasabout the meaning of written symbols as their cognitive capacitiesimprove, as they encounter writing in many contexts, and as adultshelp them with written communication.

Phonological awareness strongly predicts emergent literacyknowledge and later reading achievement. Vocabulary andgrammatical knowledge, adult–child narrative conversations, andinformal literacy-related experiences also foster literacydevelopment.

■ As children make the transition to conventional literacy,phonological awareness, processing speed, and visual scanningand discrimination contribute to reading progress. A combinationof whole-language and phonics approaches is most effective forteaching beginning reading.

■ Mathematical reasoning also builds on informally acquiredknowledge. Toddlers beginning grasp of ordinality serves as thebasis for more complex understandings. As preschoolers gainexperience with counting, they understand cardinality and beginto solve simple addition and subtraction problems. When adultsprovide many occasions for counting and comparing quantities,children construct basic numerical concepts sooner.

■ During the early school years, children acquire basic math factsthrough a combination of frequent practice, reasoning aboutnumber concepts, and teaching that conveys effective strategies.The best mathematics instruction combines practice inexperimenting with strategies and conceptual understanding.

■ The ability to coordinate theory with evidence—the heart ofscientific reasoning—improves from childhood to adolescence.Greater working-memory resources and exposure to increasinglycomplex problems in school contribute to the metacognitiveunderstanding that is vital for reasoning scientifically.

Evaluation of the Information-Processing Approach (p. 314)

Summarize the strengths and limitations of the information-processing approach.

■ A major strength of the information-processing approach is itsprecision in breaking down cognition into its components.Information processing research has contributed greatly to thedesign of teaching techniques that advance children’s thinking.

■ Nevertheless, computer models of cognitive processing do notreflect the richness of real-life learning experiences and have nottold us much about the links between cognition and other areas ofdevelopment.

CHAPTER 9 SUMMARY

Components of Language (p. 360)

What are the four components of language?

■ Language consists of four subsystems: (1) phonology, the rulesgoverning the structure and sequence of speech sounds; (2) semantics, the way underlying concepts are expressed in words;(3) grammar, consisting of syntax, the rules by which words arearranged in sentences, and morphology, markers that vary wordmeaning; and (4) pragmatics, the rules for engaging inappropriate and effective conversation.

Theories of Language Development (p. 360)

Describe and evaluate major theories of language development.

■ Chomsky’s nativist theory proposes a language acquisitiondevice (LAD) containing a universal grammar, or storehouse ofrules common to all languages. The LAD permits children, oncethey have sufficient vocabulary, to speak grammatically andcomprehend sentences in any language to which they are exposed.Animal research is consistent with this perspective, revealing thata complex language system is unique to humans.

■ The broad association of language functions, especiallygrammatical competence, with left-hemispheric regions of thecerebral cortex is in accord with Chomsky’s notion of a brainprepared to process language. Evidence for a sensitive period oflanguage development also supports the nativist view.

■ Researchers have challenged the nativist perspective on severalgrounds, including the difficulty of specifying a universalgrammar. Also, children’s continuous, gradual mastery of manyconstructions is inconsistent with the nativist assumption ofinnately determined grammatical knowledge.

■ According to the interactionist perspective, languagedevelopment results from exchanges between inner capacities andenvironmental influences. The most influential information-processing accounts are connectionist, or artificial neural network,models, which show that powerful, general cognitive capacitiesare sufficient to detect certain linguistic patterns. Other evidenceconfirms that babies identify basic language patterns with thesame strategies they use to understand nonlinguistic experiences.

■ Social interactionists believe that children’s social skills andlanguage experiences combine with native capacity to profoundlyaffect language development. But debate continues over whetherchildren make sense of their complex language environments byapplying general cognitive capacities or capacities specially tunedto language.

Prelinguistic Development: Getting Ready to Talk (p. 368)

Discuss receptivity to language, development of speech sounds, andconversational skills during infancy.

■ Newborns are capable of categorical speech perception and aresensitive to a wider range of speech categories than exists in theirown language. Between 6 and 8 months, infants start to organizespeech into the phonemic categories of their native tongue. In thesecond half of the first year, they have begun to analyze theinternal structure of sentences and words. Adults’ use of infant-directed speech (IDS) eases language learning for babies.

■ Infants begin cooing around 2 months, babbling around 6months. Over the first year, the range of babbled sounds expands.Then, as infants get ready to talk, sound and intonation patternsstart to resemble those of the child’s native language.

■ At 10 to 11 months, babies’ skill at establishing joint attentionimproves, and by the end of the first year they actively engage inturntaking games and use two communicative gestures, the protodeclarative and the protoimperative, to influence others’behavior. By the second year, caregiver–child interactioncontributes greatly to language progress.

Phonological Development (p. 373)

Describe the course of phonological development.

■ First words are influenced partly by the sounds children canpronounce. Because associating new words with their referentstaxes toddlers’ working memories, they tend to miss the finedetails of a new word’s sounds, which contributes to earlypronunciation errors.

■ Young children apply systematic phonological strategies tosimplify challenging pronunciations. Gradually, they refineminimal words into full words with correct stress patterns. As thevocal tract matures and preschoolers engage in active problemsolving, pronunciation improves greatly. But syllable stresspatterns signaling subtle differences in meaning are not mastereduntil middle childhood or adolescence.

Semantic Development (p. 376)

Summarize the course of semantic development, noting individualdifferences.

■ Language comprehension develops ahead of production. Formost children, rate of word learning increases steadily andcontinuously from toddlerhood through the preschool years. Tobuild vocabulary quickly, children engage in fast-mapping.

■ Girls show faster early vocabulary growth than boys, andtemperamentally shy or negative toddlers acquire language moreslowly. Low-SES children, who experience less verbalstimulation, usually have smaller vocabularies. Most toddlers usea referential style of language learning; their early words mainlyrefer to objects. Some use an expressive style, producing moresocial formulas and pronouns.

■ Early vocabularies typically emphasize object words; action andstate words appear soon after. When first learning words, childrenmake errors of underextension and overextension. Their wordcoinages and metaphors expand the range of meanings they canexpress.

■ Reading contributes enormously to vocabulary growth in middlechildhood. School-age children can grasp word meanings fromdefinitions, and comprehension of metaphor and humor expands.Adolescents’ ability to reason abstractly leads to an appreciationof irony, sarcasm, and figurative language.

Discuss ideas about how semantic development takes place,including the influence of memory and strategies for wordlearning.

■ A special part of short-term memory, a phonological store thatpermits retention of speech-based information, supports youngchildren’s vocabulary growth. After age 5, semantic knowledgealso influences how quickly children form phonological traces,and both factors affect word learning.

■ Children figure out the meanings of words by contrasting themwith words they already know and assigning new words to gaps intheir vocabulary. According to one view, children are innatelybiased to induce word meanings using certain principles, such as a mutual exclusivity bias and syntactic bootstrapping.

■ An alternate perspective is that children build their vocabularieswith the same cognitive strategies that they apply to nonlinguisticstimuli. According to the emergentist coalition model, childrenfigure out word meanings from a coalition of cues—perceptual,social, and linguistic—which shift in importance with age.

Grammatical Development (p. 384)

Describe the course of grammatical development.

■ Between 1½ and 2½ years, vocabulary reaches 200 to 250 wordsand two word utterances called telegraphic speech appear. Theseearly word combinations do not reflect a consistent, flexiblegrammar. As children generate three-word sentences, they usegrammatical rules in a piecemeal fashion, gradually refining andgeneralizing structures.

■ English-speaking children add grammatical morphemes in aconsistent order that reflects both structural and semanticcomplexity. Once children acquire a regular morphological rule,they overregularize, extending it to words that are exceptions.Over time, children master expressions based on auxiliary verbs,such as negatives and questions. Between ages 3½ and 6, they adda variety of intricate constructions. Certain forms, such as thepassive voice and infinitive phrases, continue to be refined inmiddle childhood.

Discuss ideas about how grammatical development takes place,including strategies and communicative support for mastering newstructures.

■ Some experts believe grammar is a product of general cognitivedevelopment. According to one view, children engage in semanticbootstrapping, relying on word meanings to figure out sentencestructure. Others believe that children master grammar throughdirect observation of the structure of language. Still others agreewith the essence of Chomsky’s theory. One idea accepts semanticbootstrapping but proposes that grammatical categories are innate.Another speculation is that children have a built-in set ofprocedures for analyzing language, which supports the discoveryof grammatical regularities.

■ Adults provide children with indirect feedback about grammaticalerrors by asking for clarification or by restructuring their speechusing recasts and expansions. However, the impact of suchfeedback on grammatical development has been challenged.

Pragmatic Development (p. 390)

Describe the course of pragmatic development.

■ Even 2-year-olds are effective conversationalists. Strategies thathelp sustain interaction, such as turnabout and shading, areadded in early and middle childhood. Children’s understanding of illocutionary intent also improves, and they also acquire moreeffective referential communication skills.

■ From the preschool to school years, children produce moreorganized, detailed, and evaluative narratives, which vary widelyin form across cultures. The ability to generate clear oralnarratives contributes to literacy development. Preschoolers arealready sensitive to speech registers. Parents tutor young childrenin politeness routines, emphasizing the importance of adaptinglanguage to social expectations.

Development of Metalinguistic Awareness (p. 394)

Describe the development of metalinguistic awareness and its rolein language-related attainments.

■ Preschoolers show the beginnings of metalinguistic awareness.Their understandings are good predictors of vocabulary andgrammatical development and, in the case of phonologicalawareness, literacy development. Major advances inmetalinguistic skills take place in middle childhood.

Bilingualism: Learning Two Languages in Childhood (p. 394)

How do children become bilingual, and what are the advantages ofbilingualism?

■ Children who learn two languages in early childhood acquireeach according to a typical timetable. When school-age childrenacquire a second language after mastering the first, they take fiveto seven years to attain the competence of native-speakingagemates. Bilingual children sometimes engage in code switchingbetween the two languages.

■ Bilingual children are advanced in cognitive development andmetalinguistic awareness—advantages that provide strongjustification for bilingual education programs in schools.

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