Effects of diabetes in aging African Americans Diabetes affects 25.8 million people in the United States, about 8.3 percent of the population (Hawkins, 2015). Almost 19 percent of African Americans over the age of 20 suffer from diabetes, yet less self-care is performed for this group. African Americans have higher rates of diabetes and develop four to six times more blindness and vascular disease or suffer from lower extremity amputations and kidney disease than Caucasians (Carter, 2013). Low socioeconomic status can limit access to healthcare and needed medicines, and in general, African Americans and Latinos suffer from higher levels of poverty and unemployment than other ethnic groups (Hawkins, 2015). Men with skin color have the worst health consequences and are hospitalized more frequently or die from complications related to diabetes (Hawkins, 2015). Diabetes is also a major cause of end stage renal disease in African Americans. Self-administration is time consuming and involves strict adherence to food planning, exercise routines, and eye, foot, and kidney care. Diabetics need to measure and control their blood pressure, blood lipids and blood sugar while following the prescribed medication plan. Latino and African American men often wait until the symptoms become too painful and severe before seeking treatment (Hawkins, 2015). Structural problems such as exemptions and transportation problems are a deterrent when it comes to getting help. The men in the 2015 Hawkins study found they lacked the resources to cover the cost of glucose screening supplies, doctor visits, and prescription drugs. These systemic barriers can cause health problems in African Americans. For example, African Americans are 2.7 times more likely to have lower extremity amputations, almost 50-fold more likely to have diabetic retinopathy, and a 2.6 to 5.6-fold probability of having kidney disease (Kleier, 2014). One of the goals of the Healthy People 2020 initiative is to address the diabetes-related factors that contribute to reducing the quality of life of people with diabetes or who are at high risk of developing diabetes. Healthy habits are the key to controlling diabetes, but there are many obstacles that limit the options available. Self-management in diabetes includes monitoring glucose and maintaining a healthy diet, exercising and maintaining pharmacotherapy and other forms of foot, tooth and eye care. Taking on these self-regulatory obligations may reduce the risk of future diabetes-related complications . Therefore, improving access to information about diabetes prevention and management for African Americans is crucial for improving health and quality of life. Psychosocial, structural and educational factors that influence self-management Previous research has shown that the attitude or attitude of a patient is an important predictor of self-management. Kleier’s study aimed to identify key factors that hinder efforts to improve attitudes. The researchers hypothesized that consistent access to information on self-care, treatment options and frequent interactions with healthcare professionals are the biggest obstacles for many African Americans. Hawkins et al. (2015) investigated the influence of psychosocial factors on the self-management of diabetes and the use of health services in men with hue and type 2 diabetes. Twenty-two participants (nine African Americans and 13 Latino men) participated in focus groups held in communities (ie H. Kirchen) in Detroit, Michigan. During the discussions, participants identified the following factors as mediators of healthy diabetes behaviors: social support, migration status, access to resources, structural barriers, and relationships between patients and care providers (Hawkins, 2015). Social support for spouses, children and family members has been reported to be the most important means of motivating men to practice self-management techniques. ~~~For this or similar assignment papers~~~
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