Management Information Systems Essay

Management Information Systems
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Abstract

Management Information Systems
A management information system is regarded as a computerized database of financial information within an organization that is programmed and organized to give regular reports concerning every level of management with the said organization (“Index,” 2014). The Management information systems are a very crucial entity of every organization as they play the roles of generation of information, problem identification, communication as well as aid the management of the organization in the decision-making process. Therefore, MIS plays crucial roles in the administrative, management as well as the operations of a company (“Index,” 2014). Among the management systems that are analyzed below include;
 The decision support systems
 Transaction processing systems
 Database management systems
 Search engine optimization
 Supply chain management
1. Decision support systems (DSS)
This is an information system that is responsible for supporting the decision making processes of an organization (Vahidov & Kersten, 2004). This system serves the planning, operations as well as the management levels of an organization to help the organization handle problems that may arise within the organization on time. These systems are utilized by the mid-level as well as the higher levels of management to make unstructured as well as the unstructured decisions. These systems are known to be fully computerized or even human-oriented but in most cases, organizations combine both approaches to get the best outcome.
Decision support systems are known to include the knowledge-based systems on an organization that is designed in an interactive way to aid the decision makers gather useful information from the raw data, personal knowledge, documents as well as available business models to point out and solve problems within the organization as well as make decisions regarding handling various aspects of the organization (Vahidov & Kersten, 2004). Among the information utilized by decision support systems include the projected revenue figures regarding the products sales, comparative sales figures as well as inventories of information assets such as data marts and data warehouses.
The decision support systems comprise of three important components of a decision support system architecture such as the database, models as well as the user interface (Vahidov & Kersten, 2004). Additionally, decision support systems can be classified in a number of ways but not all the decision support systems fit completely into one another but are known to be a mixture of more than two architectures. The decision support systems are classified into the six frameworks namely; the text-oriented, spreadsheet-oriented, Solver-oriented, database-oriented, rule-oriented as well as the compound decision support systems. The most popular among the six frameworks is the compound decision support systems because it is hybrid and contains more than two of the other frameworks.
Decision support systems are known to offer three categories of support to organizations. The three categories of support offered by the decision support systems include the personal, organizational and the group support (Vahidov & Kersten, 2004). However, the decision support components can be classified into inputs that include factors, characteristics as well as numbers that are analyzed by the system. The other component of the decision support systems is the user knowledge and expertise that includes those inputs that need to be analyzed by the system user while outputs are the third component of decision support systems that refers to the transformed data from which decisions come from. The last component of decision support system is the decisions which refer to those results of the use of the decision support systems.
Among the areas that decision supports systems can be used in an organization include the clinical decision support systems that are used by medical practitioners for medical diagnosis. Another example of the use of a decision support system is the development of an anti-terrorism system. In business and management decision support systems such as the executive boards are used by the executive management for making fast decisions, better allocation of resources within the organization as well as in the identification of negative trends within the organization. The use of decision support systems in an organization, therefore, lead to the representation of all organizational information in the form of graphs and charts so that they can appear in a summarized way to enable management make a strategic decision within the organization. The Canadian National Railway system is an example of a decision support system that helps in testing equipment on regular basis to help them in making the decision on the equipment that is faulty.

2. Transaction processing systems (TPS)
A transaction processing system (TPS) refers to a management information system that is used to carry out the day to day business transactions that involve the collection, modification as well as the retrieval of all the transaction data of an organization (Bog, 2013). The main characteristics of a transaction processing system include consistency, reliability, and performance. To achieve these main characteristics data has to be readily accessible in a warehouse, the procedures for backup of the data too need to be in place as well as a stable recovery process to deal with system failures, computer viruses as well as human failure.
Transaction processing is different from other types of computer processing models as it involves a number of processing types that make it complete. These processing types include; Batch processing that involves the execution of a number of programs on a computer system without the user having to manually intervene. A collection of many transactions that are referred to as a batch are collected and processed simultaneously and the results of each of the transactions are not available immediately the transactions are going on as there are delays (Bog, 2013).
The advantages of carrying out transactions using batch processing include the benefits that the transaction processing system can shift the time that it can carry out the job processing to when the computing resources are not being utilized (Bog, 2013). The second advantage is that batch processing helps avoid idling of computer resources that would have happened if manual intervention would be entertained. Batch processing also helps keep an overall high rate of computer resource utilization because it the computer is in the position of being amortized (“Batch Processing,” 2002). Also, the system is in the position of using different priorities when it comes to undertaking the interactive and the non-interactive tasks through batch processing as well as help the system run multiple transactions at a go instead of wasting time through running them one by one.
Another processing transaction is the real-time processing that attempts to guarantee an appropriate response to a request that is capable of affecting the conditions that resulted to the response (“Introduction of Real-time Image Processing,” 2017). In real-time processing, every transaction is unique as it is not part of any of the group of transactions. A system is said to be real-time if the operation correctness depends on both the time in which the operation is carried out as well as the operations logical correctness.
Another process that is involved in transaction processing is time-sharing which involves the sharing of the computing resources among the many users of a computer system through the use of multitasking and multiprogramming at the same time (“Introduction of Real-time Image Processing,” 2017 essay writers). Time-sharing lowers the cost of providing computing capabilities through allowing the interaction of many users concurrently thus making it possible for organizations to use a computer system eve without owning one. Transaction processing systems have a number of advantages to an organization which includes helping the organization handle many operations simultaneously.
Examples of transaction processing systems that can be found within an organization include the reservation systems that are used to set aside product or servers for specific customers. Library loan system is another type of TPS within an organization that makes it possible to keep a record of those books that have been borrowed by scanning barcodes as well as user cards.
3. Database management systems (DBMS)

4. Search engine optimization (SEO)

5. Supply chain management (SCM)
Conclusion

References
Batch Processing. (2002). Encyclopedia of Software Engineering. doi:10.1002/0471028959.sof019
Bog, A. (2013). Benchmarks for Transaction and Analytical Processing Systems. In-Memory Data Management Research, 45-62. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38070-9_3
Index. (2014). Information Systems for Knowledge Management, 313-314. doi:10.1002/9781118920664.index
Introduction of Real-time Image Processing. (2017). Architecture-Aware Optimization Strategies in Real-time Image Processing, 1-12. doi:10.1002/9781119467243.ch1
Vahidov, R., & Kersten, G. E. (2004). Decision station: situating decision support systems. Decision Support Systems, 38(2), 283-303. doi:10.1016/s0167-9236(03)00099-x