Infancy and Early childhood assignment
DEMONSTRATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES
Infant (0-2 months old):
1. Describe the motor skills of the infant (e.g., what motor abilities does the infant have)?
2. Does it appear that the infant can see well? Can the infant track something with its eyes?
3. Does the infant appear to respond to its mother’s voice?
4. Does the infant smile?
Infant (4-8 months old):
5. Describe the gross motor skills of the infant. What gross motor abilities does the infant have?
6. Describe the fine motor skills of the infant. What fine motor abilities does the infant have?
Infant (8-14 months old):
7. Describe the gross motor skills of the infant. What gross motor abilities does the infant have?
8. Describe the fine motor skills of the infant. What fine motor abilities does the infant have?
Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Piaget and Vygotsky
The chapter presents a detailed analysis of the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky as they relate to cognitive development. For Piaget, cognitive development is the product of biological factors, equilibration, experience, and social interaction and transmission. Children’s development occurs in four stages where their thinking and intellectual growth reflects qualitatively different views of the world. Peers play an important role in the developmental process, especially during the preoperational period, by providing the child with a source of conflicting information, which is critical for the formation of new cognitive structures.
Vygotsky’s theory, as discussed in the chapter, views development as a product of the child’s sociocultural history. The child’s mental structures are transformed through the zone of proximal development with the assistance of scaffolding by more advanced peers or adults. Rogoff (1990) provides a comprehensive and highly understandable comparison of these two perspectives in her book, Apprenticeship in Thinking: Cognitive Development in Social Context. She explains how development occurs through social interactions, providing numerous examples of research studies to illustrate her thesis. She also shows (pp. 137–150) how Piaget and Vygotsky view the role of the social environment in terms of three aspects of development: the mechanisms of social influence, the time frame by which social influence contributes to development, and how individuals come to understand each other during the learning process.
9. Activity: Create a compare and contrast graph showing differences and similarities between Piaget and Vygotsky. Then at end, provide your own opinion in 2-5 sentences of which theory better accounts for cognitive development. Use your textbook and other resources to complete this activity.
Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in Thinking: Cognitive Development in Social Context. New York: Oxford University Press.
Language Development Activity
10. Go to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website (http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/ChildSandL.htm) and have students read the general information about speech and language disorders. Ask them to answer the following questions:
● What are speech disorders, and how are they characterized?
● What is a language disorder, and how is it characterized?
● How can these disorders affect language development and education?
● In what ways can a speech language pathologist help children with communication disorders?