Student Name: Student ID: Given Paper 1: Tata and Prasad (2015) National cultural values, sustainability beliefs, and organizational initiative Question In your lectures, four rationales for organisational analysis are described. 1 Critically discuss the argument presented by the author(s). Answer hints: • How do the author(s) try to describe their context? (e.g. how is the narrative presented?) 2 What is the method – how do the author(s) convince their readers? Answer hints: • What data is relied on? • How is data collected? • How is data analysed? • How are conclusions presented? • Are the conclusions open to be challenged? 3 Drawing on your answers from analysing Q (1) and (2), critically analyse and match your analysis to the rational given in Lecture 1 for Organisational Analysis Answer hints: • What rational is best matched to the paper analysed? • Critically discuss your reasoning Given Paper 2: Powel and Osborne (2015) Can Marketing Contribute to Sustainable Social Enterprise Question In your lectures, four rationales for organisational analysis are described. 1 Critically discuss the argument presented by the author(s). Answer hints: • How do the author(s) try to describe their context? (e.g. how is the narrative presented?) 2 What is the method – how do the author(s) convince their readers? Answer hints: • What data is relied on? • How is data collected? • How is data analysed? • How are conclusions presented? • Are the conclusions open to be challenged? 3 Drawing on your answers from analysing Q (1) and (2), critically analyse and match your analysis to the rational given in Lecture 1 for Organisational Analysis Answer hints: • What rational is best matched to the paper analysed? • Critically discuss your reasoning Given Paper 3: Cho, C., Laine, M., Roberts, R. and Rodrigue, M. (2019). Organized hypocrisy, organizational façades, and sustainability reporting. Question In your lectures, four rationales for organisational analysis are described. 1 Critically discuss the argument presented by the author(s). Answer hints: • How do the author(s) try to describe their context? (e.g. how is the narrative presented?) 2 What is the method – how do the author(s) convince their readers? Answer hints: • What data is relied on? • How is data collected? • How is data analysed? • How are conclusions presented? • Are the conclusions open to be challenged? 3 Drawing on your answers from analysing Q (1) and (2), critically analyse and match your analysis to the rational given in Lecture 1 for Organisational Analysis Answer hints: • What rational is best matched to the paper analysed? • Critically discuss your reasoning Given Paper 4: Atkins Thomson and Maroun (2015) Good News from nowhere imagining utopian sustainable accounting Question In your lectures, four rationales for organisational analysis are described. 1 Critically discuss the argument presented by the author(s). Answer hints: • How do the author(s) try to describe their context? (e.g. how is the narrative presented?) 2 What is the method – how do the author(s) convince their readers? Answer hints: • What data is relied on? • How is data collected? • How is data analysed? • How are conclusions presented? • Are the conclusions open to be challenged? 3 Drawing on your answers from analysing Q (1) and (2), critically analyse and match your analysis to the rational given in Lecture 1 for Organisational Analysis Answer hints: • What rational is best matched to the paper analysed? • Critically discuss your reasoning ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS The Date Given Paper 1: Powel and Osborne (2015) Can Marketing Contribute to Sustainable Social Enterprise Q (1) Critically discuss the argument presented by the author(s) This article has described the marketing activity through applicability findings that are presented in terms of public service and non-profit market literature of various organization. The article has identified the importance of managers from Small Enterprises to engage and encourage the marketing sector to thrive in the long term business-to-customer relationship and business-to-business. According to the paper, it describes how the Small Medium Enterprises have misunderstood marketing in the transactional process that involves long-term sustainability. According to Powel and Osborne (2015, 25), he articulates how the social business discourse of many Small Medium Enterprises could be a catalyst to such a response of public trajectory policy with the concept of social enterprise. Therefore, if this statement is true, the coercive isomorphism described by Powell and Osborne will be taken into consideration for further sustainability development. Q (2) What is the method – how do the author(s) convince their readers? The paper has relied on qualitative research methodology to acquire data through interrogation of research questions. Qualitative research which has been enacted in this paper has explored issues of process to be adopted through multi-variable relationships. Also, it has enabled the author to identify and engage a naturalistic combination of various sources of data. The case study through available data has allowed qualitative research to build empirical evidence that relies upon conceptual understanding. The data was collected from various platforms in England (four Small Enterprises in northeast) through a convenience sampling technique that involved cross-sectional exploratory study. This case study allowed data to be explored from an enterprising social activity of the different organization. Interviews were conducted in the four Small Enterprises by further documenting characteristics of the four cases. Notably, the data to be analyzed involved the large sets of data that were grouped into comprehensive groups. The significant collections of data were differentiated or arranged in such a way it allowed the author to analyze a set of codes of various types. The sentences were represented in terms of codes, each relating to a particular literature review. Consequently, the conclusion was presented based on the data analysis finding of the coded statement. The conclusions of this study are open to challenge due to the lack of explicit and effective marketing skills, which were undermining sustainability. Q(3) Drawing on your answers from analysing Q (1) and (2), critically analyse and match your analysis to the rationale given in Lecture 1 for Organisational Analysis According to the Small Enterprises described in the paper, the paper can be identified functionalism paradigm. The article focuses on public service dominant, marketing, social enterprises, sustainability and relationship marketing which are the building blocks of economic power relations. According to Hirschheim and Klein (1989, 2011), functionalism relies on objective order whose main essence is to derive models that describe the society or the natural science of the human affairs to establish the status quo of rational choice, social order, social integration a need satisfaction. Ideally, it tries to elaborate element in a class of social system by explaining an integrated world. Functionality that exists in this paper is through marketing as a way of business promotion between enterprises and companies. Therefore, without sustainability within the social enterprises, there would be no functionality in the daily operation as the paper explains its marketing activities. Given Paper 2: Atkins Thomson and Maroun (2015) Good News from nowhere imagining utopian sustainable accounting Q (1) Critically discuss the argument presented by the author(s) This paper acknowledges the approaches that have been disclosed in an attempt to advance sustainability through quality and quantity improvement. The narratives have presented in terms of songs, reports and research study to articulate the main essence of the story. It has involved the stakeholders on addressing the comprehensive sustainability reporting fail on adequate accountability damages of the earth and people (Atkins et al., 2015, 82). Consequently, society is an ultimatum to transform the governance and the status quo of the devastating climatic change. The author has described the prior research that was conducted in an attempt to reform the corporate governance frame working on various institutional systems. The analysis assumes futuristic utopian society rather than a society described in depth about Medieval society. It is evident that the author is concerned about raising awareness of environmental accountability with the fate of the working class. Ideally, the research has integrated reporting committee that seeks to provide a normative recommendation to change the existing business reporting and practice. Also, the study has drawn some mixed reactions according to the gloomy outlook of IPCC reports on environmental conditions. Q (2) What is the method – how do the author(s) convince their readers? The method used to acquire data relies upon the qualitative type of data. According to the article, the process incorporated in this paper was four-fold. It adopted the autoethnographic approach to disseminate data and collect data in conjunction with the storytelling technique. This was essential in addressing and identifying shortcomings in sustainability and integrated reporting project. Also, it incorporated dialogues to collect data from environmentalists, lobbyists, and accounting academics groups. Data analysis involved the Autoethnography as a genre of reflexive, qualitative and autobiography writing to analyze critical findings on the accounting literature. The author’s experience with “storyteller” provided a comprehensive cycle that drew “accountability event” through sustainability reporting and stakeholder engagement. Similarly, the perfect approach was used to provide or share specific characteristics. The conclusion was presented after the integrated reporting of the data analysis step. Besides, the outcome was presented in report writings and “story-telling” to address the accounting developments. The remarks from the conclusion reports are subjected to challenge due to its impact on the environment. It is clear when the paper suggests excessive repetition and lack of integration in the sector involving non-financial and financial metrics (Atkins et al., 2015, 84). Q(3) Drawing on your answers from analysing Q (1) and (2), critically analyse and match your analysis to the rational given in Lecture 1 for Organisational Analysis The paper is categorized in the neohumanist paradigm as a way of expressing information system development. The paradigm plays a vital role in addressing radical changes that need to be adopted and stress the role of organizational forces to understand different ideologies. (Hirschheim and Klein, 1989, 2011). It is quite clear in this paper when the author addresses the need for change to focus on climatic change or disaster that is affecting the contextual dialogue of accounting academics in the form of oral disclosure. Therefore, organizations or companies should address the level in which the climate change is exposed to risk if no intervention would be taken in place for immediate action. Given Paper 3: Tata and Prasad (2015) National cultural values, sustainability beliefs, and organizational initiative Q (1) Critically discuss the argument presented by the author(s) The objective of the study is to provide literature that addresses sustainability in organizations and providing a prescription from multinationals through advocating for sustainability initiatives. Ideally, the study has a variety of objectives that tries to examine mediating variables such as perceptions and sustainability beliefs (Tata and Prasad, 2015, 280). Besides, the model of this research address three main limitations of the current literature. According to the author, the model proposed that national values have a high chance of influencing perceptions and sustainability beliefs concerning the sustainability initiatives implemented in a particular organization. Therefore, the model draws additional suggestion concerning five dimensions which have been stressed in the study concerning national values such as uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, sustainability beliefs and masculinity-feminity. Q (2) What is the method – how do the author(s) convince their readers? The study relies on data obtained from top management by engaging the management teams in a survey process. The model based on this kind of data builds upon future empirical studies that examine the cultural values of sustainability initiatives. The researchers conducted this research by obtaining measures expressing the cultural values dimensions based on sustainability implemented by the organization. These dimensions were adopted through scales to measure each variable on the current literature. Once the data was collected, the multilevel path analysis was considered to be necessary for the proposed model. Therefore, to model the two kinds of relationships, it was more significant to approximate two models simultaneously. Also, the mixed model provided versatility to capture information between the path and two-level analysis. Besides, the study described above was essential to determine whether cultural dimensions is interactive or additive. Conclusions were presented based on the several propositions that specify the kind of dimension in practice. They involved the dimension of national culture and beliefs that are regarded as the perceived importance of the initiative and observed inconvenience sustainability. Based on the insightful proposition, the conclusions made by the author are open to challenge as most of the empirical theories drawn are subjective opinions of authors which require further analysis. Q (3) Drawing on your answers from analysing Q (1) and (2), critically analyse and match your analysis to the rational given in Lecture 1 for Organisational Analysis The paper argument relies on social relativism paradigm to address the sustainability beliefs of given organizational sustainability initiatives and cultural values. According to Hirschheim and Klein (1989, 2011), social relativism seeks to explain the realm of an individual perspective based on the level of consciousness and subjectivity. It is quite clear in this paper that the author tries to address different sustainability initiative through empirical theories that are related to four dimensions. Therefore, the social reference exists from the opinion of sustainability beliefs concerning the sustainability initiatives implemented in a particular organization. Notably, the expression of social relativism is embraced through socio-cultural systems that rely on the sustainability practices of individuals. Given Paper 4: Cho, C., Laine, M., Roberts, R. and Rodrigue, M. (2019). Organized hypocrisy, organizational façades, and sustainability reporting Q (1) Critically discuss the argument presented by the author(s) The author describes how corporates engage in a hypocritical conflicting management through the involvement of stakeholders in an uncoordinated society filled with social pressure as evidenced in the commercial enterprises. The paper address the sustainability disclosure that has become ubiquitous and gaps still exist between the corporate practice and sustainability talk (Cho et al., 2016, 660). Therefore, the substantial body of research has no role to play. The author proposes that a more nuanced and richer theoretical lens should be incorporated to address prior work in organizational facades and organized hypocrisy. Ideally, the theoretical framework has been used to scrutinise decisions made by the actions of U.S based multinational gas and oil Q (2) What is the method – how do the author(s) convince their readers? The author used qualitative data from the annual reports of websites, sustainability reports, and shareholding resolutions. The data were collected from the sustainability stand-alone reports of various years. The data obtained was carefully examined from the corporate webpages for the period 2004 to 2006 which were mainly on archives. The websites and reports were reviewed by applying qualitative content analysis. Consequently, the data was organized in terms of codes generated by the author from the ANWR case. As a result, the reviewed and adjusted system was prepared for a narrative strategy for data analysis. The author addressed typically how the codes were analyzed both within and across categories for common issues, identification of trends and possible inconsistencies. The insights drawn from this interpretation consists of corporate disclosure through organizational facades and organized hypocrisy as theoretical lenses. Through observing and interpreting the data, the author presented the final output through insightful conclusion concerning the public and actual announcement. Therefore, the outcome was in a position to address the fundamental proposition related to organization hypocrisy behavior. Conclusion presented in this paper was open to challenge since it relied on organized hypocrisy made from the qualitative content analysis opinions. Q (3) Drawing on your answers from analysing Q (1) and (2), critically analyse and match your analysis to the rational given in Lecture 1 for Organisational Analysis The context address radical structuralism as a way of embracing existing organizational and social arrangement. Radical structuralism is based on economic power and structural analysis relationship (Hirschheim and Klein, 1989, 2011). Similarly, the paper addresses the economic power between two U.S multinational oil exploration company based on the organizational hypocrisy that exists. It is evident that the organization are bound to organized hypocrisy that develops the discrepant corporate facades. Therefore, the companies described in this paper portrays the economic pillar house of fragile environments respected in future. In a similar vein, the approach embraced in organizational sustainability is aimed to organize facades by organizational stakeholders of the legitimacy. We can think of it how a failure of a given organization would be as a result of radical changes made by the other organization to be competitive. This façade can serve as a proxy of corporation realistic through the achievement of goals to outperform a specific stakeholder performance. References Atkins, J., Atkins, B.C., Thomson, I. and Maroun, W., 2015. “Good” news from nowhere: imagining utopian sustainable accounting. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 28(5), pp.651-670. Cho, C.H., Laine, M., Roberts, R.W. and Rodrigue, M., 2015. Organized hypocrisy, organizational façades, and sustainability reporting. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 40, pp.78-94. Hirschheim, R. and Klein, H.K., 1989. Four paradigms of information systems development. Communications of the ACM, 32(10), pp.1199-1216. Powell, M. and Osborne, S.P., 2015. Can marketing contribute to sustainable social enterprise?. Social Enterprise Journal, 11(1), pp.24-46. Tata, J. and Prasad, S., 2015. National cultural values, sustainability beliefs, and organizational initiatives. Cross Cultural Management, 22(2), pp.278-296. ~~~For this or similar assignment papers~~~