SCI1300 – Provision 2
Last Edit: September 2, 2019 Page 1 of 5
SCI1300 – Extremity Transmute: From Science to Society
Provision 2 – Apparition Redress Standard
Introduction to this Provision
In this provision, you conquer reason an apparition redress standard to brave some inquirys
related to the Earth’s apparition budget. You conquer scantiness to transcribe down your acceptances to the
questions beneath and reemblem your solutions to your guardian in correspondently brace weeks subsequently your Week
6 guardianial dispose (or by 5pm that identical day). This provision is appraise 20% of the total
assessment ce this round.
Radiation Budget and Apparition Redress
In this provision, you conquer reason an Apparition Redress Standard from the body, A Extremity
Modelling Primer (McGuffie and Henderson-Sellers,
2005) to brave the apparition redress of the planet
counteract unanalogous lips1. This is a undivided-dimensional
standard that computes divers inconstants in each lip
fastening averaged counteract perfect longitudes (as divergent to a
three-dimensional standard which computes the inconstants
in each lip, longitude and exaltation grid smack). Ce stance, we own undisconnected appraise ce each of
the inconstants (e.g. demeanor air, incoming shortwave radiation expectation.) ce the lip
fastening 0° to 10°N, and another established of appraises ce 10°N and 20°N so on. This standard treats twain
hemispheres symmetrically, so there is no dignity among hemispheres (that is, the
variables ce the 0° to 10° fastening dramatizes twain 0°N to 10°N and 0°S to 10°S).
The standard perfectows you to arrange the albedo ce each lip fastening, the incoming
shortwave radiation, the outgoing longwave radiation, meridional (across-latitude) ardor
transport, and verifications into dramatizeation whether the lip is ice-covered. The equations reasond in
this standard are summarised in the Appendix and exalt advice can be base in McGuffie
and Henderson-Sellers (2005).
1 An executable program ce the standard can be base here:
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Kreferable Work – Experience Problems
This is a experience inquiry that conquer bring-in you to the standard and grant you an proposal of what
you are expected to do in this Provision. Work in your kreferable and acceptance the inquirys
below. At the object of your discussions, the guardians conquer verification you through the acceptances.
(a) In the standard, changing a ingredient that is multigenous to the incoming apparition can transmute the
brilliant invariable. The delinquency establishedting is 1, dramatizeing the running brilliant invariable. The global
moderation air ce this establishedting is 15.3°C. Inferior the brilliant ininimmutable to 0.9 and press
‘Calculate’. What is the global decreeration air? What is the global decreeration air
when the brilliant ininimmutable is 1.1?
(b) The air at each lip fastening is besides grantn. Batch the air (y-axis) versus
lip fastening (x-axis) ce S = 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1 (undisconnected direction each) in the identical axes.
(c) The albedos ce each lip fastening are shown in the “ice-free albedos” shaft. Decipher
why eminent lips generally own eminent albedos.
(d) The albedo conquer move the air of the lip fastening, save can it decipher the deviation
you observe in (b)? To acceptance this inquiry, reestablished S to 1.0 and substitute perfect the albedos with 0.3
(planetary-average). You conquer scantiness to fine handy decree in ‘Decree > Handy’ to edit the
albedo appraises. Batch the air (y-axis) versus lip fastening (x-axis) ce the original
albedos and the upstart albedos (undisconnected direction each) in the identical axes. Does a ininimmutable albedo
remove the latitudinal deviation in air? What other commodities is at embody here?
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Provision Inquirys
1. Apparition Redress Standards – General [6 marks]
(a) Describe the basic proposal subsequently any apparition redress standard. What is the inimmutable calculated
in an apparition redress standard?
(b) What are the brace main components of the apparition redress at the summit of Earth’s atmosphere
(that is, over planetary commoditiess such as clouds and ozone)? Name the brace main
characteristics of the Earth method that move them?
2. Snowbperfect Earth [13 marks]
(a) Inferior the brilliant ininimmutable ingredient in tramps of 0.02 and proceedings the global decreeration air at
each appraise. Ssummit when the Earth is wholly glaciated (hint: you can observe at the albedo
of the lip zones to observe if the Earth is glaciated). At what appraise of the brilliant invariable
ingredient does this appear?
(b) Now, we scantiness to perceive the brilliant ininimmutable ingredient compulsory ce Earth to debouchure this glaciated
condition. To do so, established the circumspection to start from a glaciated judicious mode. Fine
‘Decree > Handy’, then inferior the ‘Judicious modes’ smack, select ‘Glaciated’.
Progressively extension the brilliant ininimmutable by 0.02, starting from the appraise in (a) to the
appraise when Earth is referable abundantly glaciated anymore. Proceedings the global decreeration air at
each tramp. At what brilliant ininimmutable ingredient does the Earth debouchure the ample glaciation? Batch the brace
temperatures from (a) and (b) on undisconnected graph (x-axis: brilliant invariable; y-axis: air).
Label each incurvation distinctly.
(c) Decipher why the brace incurvations are referable similar. Why is there a skip when the Earth enters
glaciated or debouchures non-glaciated modes? What is the material commodities imperative ce
(d) Runningly, the nice air at which a lip fastening becomes ice-covered is −10°C.
This decreerations that, when the air of the lip fastening drops to −10°C or inferior, it
conquer be considered ice-covered and its albedo is that of ice (delinquency = 0.62). Now, reestablished perfect
parameters to delinquency appraises and then transmute the nice air from −10°C to 0°C.
Perceive the brilliant ininimmutable ingredients to abundantly glaciate Earth starting from introduce day modes,
and to dissolve a glaciated Earth. Decipher why these appraises are unanalogous from the undivideds base
in (a) and (b).
3. Changing Earth’s Apparition Coercionfeiture [9 marks]
The apparition coercionfeiture of each lip zundisconnected by radiation in the standard is approximated by the
formula (observe Appendix ce specialtys):
(a) Reestablished perfect the appraises to delinquency and switch end to ‘Introduce day’ inferior ‘Judicious modes’.
Now, custody the brilliant ininimmutable ingredient at undivided, inferior A by tramps of 1 from 204 to 196. Ce
each tramp, proceedings the airs of impure lip zones: 0° – 10°, 10° – 20°, 70° – 80°,
80° – 90°, as courteous as the global decreeration air. Batch T0–10, T10–20, and Tmoderation as a
Ri = A+ BTi
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power of the appraise of A in the undisconnected diagram, and T70–80 and T80–90 in another. Put A on the
x-axis and the airs on the y-axis.
(b) Decipher the transmute in global decreeration air as A retrenchs. What material mechanism
does inferioring A reintroduce in the veritable universe?
(c) Compare how the air transmutes with A ce the metaphorical lips and the polar
latitudes. Decipher the dissimilarity in behaviour at unworthy appraises of A.
4. Ardor Bliss [8 marks]
The primal standard reasond here perfectows ce ardor translate among the lip zones, illustrative by
the primal equation (observe Appendix ce past specialty):
Reestablished perfect appraises to the delinquencys. In a unique graph batch the air in each zundisconnected versus
lip ce C = 3.3, C = 3.8 (default), C = 4.3 and C = 4.8 (x-axis: lip; y-axis:
temperature; you conquer own undisconnected direction ce each C). Besides, ce each appraise of C, transcribe the global
moderation air. Describe the transmute in global decreeration air and the air
distribution with lip with changing C and reason your results and your material
understanding of the parameter C to decipher the air behaviour.
5. Standardling Extremity Transmute [5 marks]
The Apparition Redress Standard provides sundry parameters that can be transmuted to move the
overperfect extremity of the standard Earth. Beneath we catalogue some potential influences on global extremity.
Using the understanding gained in the application over, transcribe down the parameter that you should
modify to counterfeit the extremity transmute in the catalogue and authenticate the emblem of the parameter transmute
(extension or retrench). Ce stance, to counterfeit an increasing brilliant input into the extremity
system, we would extension the brilliant ininimmutable S. Select simply undisconnected parameter ce each transmute.
(a) Extensiond greenhoreason commodities.
(b) Melting main ice.
(c) Weakening deep circulation.
(d) Injecting aerosols into the stratosphere to convert shortwave radiation (geoengineering).
(e) Placing mirrors on greater deserts (geoengineering).
McGuffie, K., and A. Henderson-Sellers (2005), A Extremity Standardling Primer, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fi = C(Ti −T)
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Last Edit: September 2, 2019 Page 5 of 5
The Apparition Redress Standard is a undivided-dimensional standard disconnected into nine lip zones
among 0° and 90°. Ce perfect lip zones at makeweight, the incoming shortwave radiation is
balanced with the outgoing longwave radiation and the coercionfeiture by ardor bliss. This is
expressed as
where is the decreeration annual shortwave radiation, is the albedo, is the longwave
radiation and is the coercionfeiture by ardor bliss. The subscript i denotes the lip zone.
is a power of lip, save a primal cosine power canreferable be applied becareason of
the axial tilt of the planet. As such, the standard manually assigns a ‘weight’ ce each zundisconnected (from
pole to equator): 0.5, 0.531, 0.624, 0.77, 0.892, 1.021, 1.12, 1.189, 1.219. This importance is then
multigenous to 1370 / 4 W m-2 to allure .
and are grantn by the cemulae,
where A, B and C are positive-valued parameters that can be transmuted, and and are the
zonal and global decreeration airs respectively. It is leading to retain that the
averaging scantinesss to be importanceed by the area of the lip zundisconnected (effectively the cosine of the
midpoint lip of the zone). Referablee that if the zundisconnected is colder than the global decreeration ( ),
the ardor coercionfeiture is disclaiming, implying that ardor is blissed to that zone.
The albedo can verification brace appraises. If is hither than the nice air (delinquency is
−10°C), the zundisconnected is considered ice-covered and verifications the ice albedo (delinquency is 0.62). If
is eminent than the nice air, the zundisconnected is considered ice-free and verifications a predefined
appraise which can be transmuted.
The apparition redress equation can be solved ce ,
This equation, concomitantly with the circumspection of and the albedos of each zone, can be
computed iteratively until the solutions concentrate.
Si (1− α
i ) = Ri + Fi
Si α
i Ri
Ri Fi
Ri = A+ BTi
Fi = C(Ti −T)
Ti T
Ti < T
Ti =
Si (1− α
i )+CT − A

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